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Jackie Robinson and His Legacy: 50 Years Later

Kirby Puckett, Hank Aaron, Ozzie Smith-the absence of these names would leave enormous gaps in any discussion of America's favorite pastime, but before the desegregation of baseball, it would have been unthinkable to include them.

Fifty years ago, when the Brooklyn Dodgers really were the Brooklyn Dodgers, Jackie Robinson became the first black player to enter major league baseball, and his entry, called "Baseball's Great Experiment," was literally a roaring success. Since then, Jackie Robinson has achieved a sort of mythic status. Besides being a phenomenal baseball player, Robinson has been associated with being a pathbreaker and tearing down segregation. Tygiel has spent much scholarship examining the social and historical forces involved in Robinson's integration into white organized baseball, not just as it relates to the game but as the game relates to America as a whole. In addition to telling Robinson's story, Tygiel examined the stories of other pioneer black players and what happened to the Negro Leagues after desegregation.

Tygiel received his Ph.D. in American History from UCLA; he specializes in the history of California, labor, carpenters, and baseball. He taught history at the Universities of Tennessee and Virginia. His books include Baseball's Great Experiment: Jackie Robinson and His Legacy (1983), Working Men in San Francisco (1992), The Great Los Angeles Swindle: Oil, Stocks, and Scandal During the Roaring Twenties (1994), and The Jackie Robinson Reader (1997). In addition, he has published articles in American Heritage, California History, and Labor History.

From the Fellows

Welcome to what we believe will be another good year (maybe the best yet) for the Marian Miner Cook Athenaeum. Both of us have been working hard to ensure that students will continue to have a voice in the selection of speakers and the planning of events. We believe that the Athenaeum makes a significant contribution to the intellectual and social life on our campus.

Reservations are required for Athenaeum dinners and should be made by returning the reservation page of The Fortnightly to the box in the Athenaeum lobby. Please cancel your meat reservation by noon on the day of the event if you cannot attend. No jeans, shorts, or T-shirts, please.

Afternoon teas in the Athenaeum have already begun, and we would like to encourage all of you to attend. Tea begins at 3:00 p.m. and lasts until 4:30 p.m., providing a perfect midafternoon break. An assortment of desserts are served, along with the ubiquitous rice crispy treats and a choice of coffee, tea, or fruit juice. In addition, Parents Library contains copies of numerous newspapers and magazines.

Please let us know if you have any questions about Athenaeum programs or suggestions for speakers.

Training to Lead: The Impact of Sports on Leadership

When Jack Kemp was named the Republican candidate for Vice President in August of 1996, he energized a floundering campaign with his message of tax cuts to stimulate growth and expand opportunity for all Americans. Kemp's energy and leadership was key to the Republican rebound in the polls. Unquestionably, his ability to command an audience and develop an overall strategy for the campaign was based in his background as a leader on the football field. For Jack Kemp, success in athletics contributed heavily to success in politics.

When Kemp entered the political realm as a Congressman representing the Buffalo area and western New York, he was already known to millions because of his accomplishments in professional football. Kemp is a graduate of Occidental College where he was a star quarterback and he entered the new American Football League soon after graduation. He eventually became the starting quarterback for the San Diego Chargers and grew into the role of a team leader. He was captain of the Chargers from 1960 to 1962 and also of the Buffalo Bills, the team he helped lead to the AFL championship in 1964 and 1965, when he was named the league's most valuable player. Showing his penchant for leadership and organization, he cofounded the AFL Players Association and was five times elected president.

After Kemp's transition to the political realm, he continued the same pattern of leadership and success. He represented the Buffalo area for 18 years in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1971 to 1989. He served for seven years in the Republican
leadership as Chairman of the House Republican Conference. Kemp served for four years in the Cabinet as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and proved to be one of our nation's most innovative leaders. He was the first and strongest advocate of Enterprise Zones to encourage entrepreneurship and job creation in urban America and of expanding home ownership among the poor through resident management and ownership of public housing.

Kemp is a codirector of Empower America, a public policy and advocacy organization he cofounded in 1993 with William Bennett and then-ambassador Jeanne Kirkpatrick. Empower America is dedicated to three founding principles at the core of Kemp's convictions: expanding freedom and democratic capitalism; promoting policies to expand economic growth and entrepreneurship for our nation; and advancing social policies that empower people, not government bureaucracies.

Jack Kemp is visiting Claremont McKenna College as Chair of the Henry Kravis Leadership Institute's conference entitled "Training to Lead: The Impact of Sports on Leadership." His talk this evening at the Athenaeum is the keynote address for the conference and follows a panel discussion to be held from 3:00 to 5:00 p.m. in Mary Pickford Auditorium.

The dinner at the Athenaeum is for members of the CMC community only. The public is invited to the address at 6:45 p.m. and overflow seating will be accommodated in McKenna Auditorium with live, remote broadcast.

Radical Son: A Generational Odyssey

David Horowitz is anything but a moderate. In his recent book Radical Son: A Generational Odyssey (1997), Horowitz traces his startling political odyssey from '60s radical to '90s conservative. P. J. O'Rourke has called Radical Son "one of the best political memoirs I've ever read." In his memoir Horowitz describes his encounters with some of the leading figures of American politics and the intellectual struggles that ultimately led to his rejection of the radical Left. While proceeding through his own intellectual journey, and to some degree America's, Horowitz relays a deeply personal account of three generations of one American family's infatuation with the radical Left from the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution to the collapse of the Marxist empire six decades later.

Horowitz was one of the founders of the New Left and an editor of Ramparts, the magazine that set the intellectual and revolutionary tone for the movement. It is in this capacity that Radical Son introduces the reader to an aged Bertrand Russell organizing a War Crimes Tribunal over the war in Vietnam and to Tom Hayden, the radical everyman who Horowitz claims instigated the riots at the 1968 Democratic Convention and is now a California State Senator from West Los Angeles. It was Horowitz's encounter with the radical icon of the '60s, the Black Panthers, that began his reconsideration of his ideology.

David Horowitz is president of the Los Angeles-based Center for the Study of Popular Culture and editor of the journal Heterodoxy. Through these vehicles he has become a leading critic of both Hollywood and political correctness on college campuses. He may be the most hated ex-radical of his generation, becoming as prominent on the Right as he was on the Left.

In his address Horowitz will recount some of the high points from his best-selling book, focusing on the events that led to his ideological transformation. He will also share some of his observations about the state of America's college campuses.

A Celebration of the Negro Leagues

From 1889, when Fleetwood Walker played catcher for the Toledo Major League club, until 1947, when Jackie Robinson stepped on the field for the Brooklyn Dodgers, Negro baseball players were excluded from the Major Leagues by an unwritten "gentleman's agreement" among club owners.

In 1920 Chicago American Giants owner Rube Foster met with owners of other independent Negro professional teams to form the first successful organized Negro League-The Negro National League. For the next 30 years the various Negro Leagues would stage heated rivalries, competitive World Series, and very popular All-Star games and create almost mythical heroes, such as Satchel Paige, Josh Gibson, Judy Johnson, Cool Papa Bell, Oscar Charlston, John Henry Lloyd, Martin Dihigo, Ray Dandridge, and John "Buck" O'Neil.

Despite their underground popularity, the Negro Leagues often struggled for survival, with teams and leagues folding on a regular basis. Ironically, it was the integration of the Major Leagues that proved to be the death knell for the Negro Leagues. As a tribute to their undeniable talents, 13 former Negro League players have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame solely for their performances in the Negro Leagues. More Negro players are destined to be inducted in the future.

Please join us for a panel discussion of this eventful period in baseball history, including a discussion of the business and economic aspects, invention and creation, and legacy of the Negro Leagues. The distinguished panel will include Kathy Robinson, the niece of Jackie Robinson; Tia Wright, the granddaughter of Lou Dials; Dick Simpson, a Negro League historian; and Earl "Stick" Robinson, a player in the Negro Leagues. The panel will be moderated by Southern California native, Bobbie McDonald, President of the Orange County Black Chamber of Commerce, and author of the book, Black College Football: 100 Years of History, Education, and Pride (1993). The presentation will include artifacts from Negro League games.

Classical Guitar

Back by popular demand! Last spring Athenaeum guests were transported to new aesthetic realms by Gordon O'Brien's muse, and now he has consented to return. O'Brien's brilliant technique and artistry are outdone only by his modesty and cheerful attitude.

O'Brien has been labeled one of the world's finest musicians. He certainly started out as a prodigy, beginning the study of guitar at the age of 6; within a year he was beyond the ability of his first professional teacher. By the age of 12 he had played with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra and on the CBC. The years since have only added skill and maturity to his music. He has taken first prize at several international contests, including The John Williams Australian International, the Leo Brouwer International Guitar Concerto Competition, the Edward Stotsenberg Classical Guitar Competition, and the N.G.S.W. International Guitar Concerto Competition. His studies and tours have taken him around the world to play with the world's masters and he is now acknowledged as a master himself.

The evening's program will include "Elegy for Guitar" by Mertz and "Pavane (pour une infante defunte)" by Ravel, as well as music from Bach, Brouwer, Narvaez, Albeniz, and Barrios.

O'Brien's concert is the first in the Stotsenberg Chamber Music Series that will be continued spring semester. This series is funded by a gift from Ed and Dorothy Stotsenberg, friends of CMC.

Show and Tell in the 21st Century: The New Juror

Scientific "people watching" is how Jo-Ellan Dimitrius describes her work. As the lead jury consultant for the O.J. Simpson legal defense team, she applied the latest in social science techniques such as mock juries and focus groups to construct the perfect jury questionnaire. She then tabulated her responses and graded each candidate on a variety of categories including empathy, punitiveness, and leadership. With this data on hand and a bit of her trademark intuition, Dimitrius selected the jury that produced a not-guilty verdict in the so-called trial of the century.

Though her job is certainly at times glamorous, Dimitrius first examined the profession of jury consulting through the eyes of a dedicated academic. She is a graduate of Scripps College and Claremont Graduate University, where she earned a Ph.D. in criminal justice and politics. Dimitrius has long been interested in the relationship between the television and radio media and the ability of an individual or corporation to receive a fair jury trial. The 6th Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees the right to a fair trial, and it is Dimitrius's belief that media saturation and instant communication have increased the tendency of the public to prejudge high-profile cases. As a jury consultant, Dimitrius selects cases-ranging from the policeman accused of beating Rodney King to Heidi Fleiss to corporations facing toxic law violations-where she can assist the underdog who has been the brunt of significant public criticism before trial.

Dimitrius will elaborate on her perceptions about the role that the information age plays in the jury system. She is the third speaker in the series justice and the Law, which focuses on potential pitfalls in the efforts of America's courts to decide cases justly. This talk has been rescheduled from September 24.

The Case for Public Morality

The perennial debate over how (or, indeed, over whether it is possible) to reconcile the personal liberties of individual citizens with the conflicting moral and ethical convictions of the larger community pits what professor Harry M. Clor calls the "libertarian" versus the "traditionalist." The libertarian contends that government regulation of any expression-however shocking, offensive, or threatening that expression may be (and to however many people)-has no place in liberal society. Censorship amounts to no more than legislated conformity; moreover, in a society as pluralistic and multicultural as America's, no aesthetic or ethical consensus is possible. The traditionalist counters that in a democracy the majority are entitled to exert at least some influence over the moral and cultural environment in which they must live and rear their children.

The controversy raises two questions: Where do we draw the line? and Is it right to draw any lines at all? Professor Clor, in his controversial new book Public Morality and Liberal Society: Essays on Decency, Law, and Pornography (1996), contends that peaceful coexistence of the libertarian and the traditional is possible, but that such compatibility hinges upon a clear definition of just what public morality is, as well as an understanding of its philosophic justification.

Dr. Clor, the second speaker in the Gould Center-sponsored series Censorship, Politics, and the Culture of Transgression, has written many books and articles on subjects ranging from classical political philosophy to American constitutional law to contemporary moral and political theory. Professor of political science at Kenyon College, where he has taught since 1970, Clor is a past NEH fellow and has served as a consultant to the National Commission on Obscenity and Pornography and as an evaluator on proposed projects for the National Endowment for the Humanities.