Diedrich, Cajus G. and Donald A. McFarlane. “Homotherium From Middle Pleistocene Archaeological and Carnivore Den Sites of Germany - Taxonomy, Taphonomy and a Revision of the Schöningen, West Runton and Other Saber-Tooth Cat sites.” Quaternary International, vol. 436, 2017, pp. 76-83.
Abstract: Four new saber-tooth cat (Homotherium) sites in Germany with new dental and postcranial bone material are different in their taphonomic context: 1. The Archaeological Middle Palaeolithic (MIS 9eInterglacial) Schoningen Lake site with remains of a cub carcass, 2. The Middle Palaeolithic (MIS 5e-9) Archaeological/cave bear den site of Balve Cave yielding a lower canine tooth of an older individual, 3. The Zoolithen Cave (MIS 3e9) cave bear/hyena den with one distal half humerus of an adult, 4. The Ketsch open air Rhine River terrace site which has provided another distal humerus of an adult sabertooth cat. Whereas only the Schoningen site is precisely dated as Holsteinian Interglacial (approx. 330.000-315.000 BP), all other material seems to come from the same Middle Pleistocene warm period, or few younger Saalian interstadials (MIS 7a, e) deposits, and did not extend over the last MIS 7 glacial into the Late Pleistocene. Homotherium as hyena-like slow moving cat seems to have disappeared within the Saalian due to competition with other scavengers like Ice Age spotted and brown hyenas (Crocuta crocuta praespelaea/ultima and Pachycrocuta brunnea mosbachensis). The juvenile saber-tooth cat cub from Schoningen might be in archaeological context or represent only a carnivore kill. At the Zoolithen Cave, the single bone must have been imported into a hyena prey bone assemblage. The situation is possibly similar at the two other sites Ketsch and Balve Cave. The formerly described Schoningen “sabertooth cat” humerus is revised, such as other opposite as lion humeri described material from different European sites. The presence of the well-developed supracondylar ridge distinguishes Homotherium well from Middle/Late Pleistocene lions Panthera leo (e.g. spelaea, fossilis). The Schoningen lion humerus has been chew-cut first most probably by a stripped hyena whose cutting scissor teeth produced a diagonal bite cut and P4 /M1 impact marks around the trochlea. 1e2 mm small, mostly triangular-oval bite marks on the lion humerus shaft compacta results from a second scavenger and not from “Neanderthal tool use”. Those bite mark sizes are produced mainly of the upper molar teeth of the red wolf Cuon alpinus subsp. (or small fox Vulpes praecorsac), which were present in the region within the Holsteinian/Saalian.
Lundberg, J., W. Carroll, W. Roberts, D.A. McFarlane, M. Buchroithner, and G. van Rentergem. “Analysis of Scallops in Gomantong Caves, by GIS Processing of 3-D Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data.” Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Penrith, Australia, vol. 2, 2017, pp. 285-288.
Lundberg, Joyce, and Donald A. McFarlane. “Speleothems and Spiders: Morphology and Origin of Gypsum Nucleated on Spider Webs, Deer Cave, Sarawak, Borneo.” Cave and Karst Science, vol. 44, no. 3, 2017, pp. 127-131.
Abstract: An unusual form of gypsum is reported from Deer Cave, Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. The gypsum is originally derived from decomposing bat guano, is air-dispersed, dissolved in condensation water entrained in spiders’ webs, and then recrystallized on the spider silk matrix.
Marx, Andrew, Donald McFarlane, and Ahmed Alzahrani. "UAV Data for Multi-Temporal Landsat Analysis of Historic Reforestation: A Case Study in Costa Rica." International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol 38, issue 8-10, 2017, pp. 2331-2348.
Abstract: The use of the Landsat constellation to quantify historic deforestation and reforestation over time is well established. This analysis, however, requires ground-referenced data that is often inaccessible in remote areas or expensive if no existing high-resolution satellite imagery exists. In response, we evaluate the capability of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery to serve as ground-reference data for identifying land-cover classes in Landsat imagery. We then apply these classes to quantify 30 years of historical deforestation and reforestation of an ecological reserve in Costa Rica. While spatial and spectral disparities between the sensors limit the generalization of the approach, our results demonstrate the ability of UAV and Landsat data to inexpensively classify a reserve’s historic land cover over time and suggest an 11 year period for land cover to transition from pasture to secondary forest in lowland tropical environments.
McFarlane, D.A., J. Lundberg, and G. van Rentergem. “Preliminary Observations on Tropical Bat Caves as Biogeochemical Nitrogen Sinks.” Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Penrith, Australia, vol. 1, 2017, pp. 157-160.
Schertler, N., M. Buchroithner, D.A McFarlane, G. van Rentergem, J. Lundberg, and S. Gumhold. “Deterministically Defining Chambers in 3-D Scans of Caves.” Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Penrith, Australia, vol. 2, 2017, pp. 140-142.
van Rentergem, G., D.A. McFarlane., J. Lundberg, and M. Buchroithner. “Lessons Learned From a Large-Scale 3-D Mapping Project With FARO Laser Scanners of the Gomantong Caves, Borneo.” Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Penrith, Australia, vol. 2, 2017, pp. 144-146.
Abstract: During a 24-day T-Lidar scanning project of the Gomantong Caves in Sabah, Malaysia (some 4 km of often very physically demanding passage), we collected 271 scans, resulting in a massive data set of 12.6 billion scan points. In hindsight, we can now offer some new protocols that should enhance future fieldwork and subsequent data processing. The main lesson we learned is that using reference spheres is not really necessary: instead, we can use features of the complex natural surfaces of the cave as reference. Tis accelerates the pace of scanning greatly, and eliminates the dangers associated with placements of spheres in hazardous situations. Tis increase in scanning efficiency does come at a price because subsequent scan registration becomes more complex. However, the extended time required for a more complex cloud-to-cloud registration in an office environment is more-than-compensated for by the increased efficiency and reduced risk of the fieldwork. In this paper, we also review some other lessons learned during this project.
van Rentergem, G., D.A. McFarlane, J. Lundberg, and M. Buchroithner. “Mathematical Modelling of the Relationship Between Terrestrial LIDAR Scan Point Density and Volumetric Assessment of
Underground Cavities. Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Penrith, Australia, vol. 2, 2017, pp. 147-149.