2017 Psychology Publications and Grants

*Indicates student co-author

Grosberg, Denise*, and Marjorie H. Charlop. “Teaching Conversational Speech to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Text-Message Prompting.” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, vol. 50, issue 4, 2017, pp. 789-804.

Abstract: The present study was designed to teach conversational speech using text-message prompts to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in home play settings with siblings and peers. A multiple baseline design across children was used. Children learned conversational speech through the text-message prompts, and the behavior generalized across peers and settings. Maintenance of treatment gains was seen at 1-month follow-up probes. Social validity measures indicated that parents of typically developing children viewed the participants' conversational speechas much improved after the intervention. Results are discussed in terms of the efficacy of text-message prompts as a promising way to improve conversational speech for children with ASD.

LaBelle, Chris A.*, Cathy Jones*, Majorie H. Charlop, and Benjamin R. Thomas*. “Combining The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) with Functional Communication Training (FCT) to Decrease Problem Behavior in Children with Autism.” Perspectives on Early Childhood Psychology and Education, vol. 1, 2017, pp. 95-120.

Abstract: Ancillary decreases in the problem behavior of children with autism have been found following the implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). However, no studies used functional analysis (FA) to ascertain behavioral function, nor has the PECS protocol been modified to target functions of problem behaviors other than access to tangibles, using a functional communication training (FCT) format. In the present study, a multiple baseline design across children with an additional reversal control was used to assess the effects of PECS alone and in combination with FCT upon problem behavior. Following FA baselines, each child was taught PECS, presented with FCT using PECS, then presented with reversal, and finally presented with FCT again. Results suggested that the children's problem behavior decreased or remained level during PECS training. Further decreases in problem behavior were found during the modified PECS + FCT training. In addition, all of the children's problem behavior increased upon FCT reversal, then decreased upon return to FCT.

External Grant: Charlop, Marjorie, Director of the Claremont Autism Center. Simon-Strauss Foundation, $5,000 in support of Cross Cultural Research, Social Skills and Technology Research, and Social Awareness in the Community, 2017.

Day, David V. and Patricia M.G. O'Connor. “Talent Development: Building Organizational Capability.” The Oxford Handbook of Talent Management, edited by David G. Collings, Kamel Mellahi, and Wayne F. Cascio, Oxford University Press, 2017, pp. 343-360.

Lord, Robert G., Day, David V., Zacarro, Stephen J., Avolio, Bruce J., and Alice H. Eagly. “Leadership in Applied Psychology: Three Waves of Theory and Research.” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 102, issue 3 (Centennial Issue), 2017, pp. 434-451.

Abstract: Although in the early years of the Journal leadership research was rare and focused primarily on traits differentiating leaders from nonleaders, subsequent to World War II the research area developed in 3 major waves of conceptual, empirical, and methodological advances: (a) behavioral and attitude research; (b) behavioral, social-cognitive, and contingency research; and (c) transformational, social exchange, team, and gender-related research. Our review of this work shows dramatic increases in sophistication from early research focusing on personnel issues associated with World War I to contemporary multilevel models and meta-analyses on teams, shared leadership, leader-member exchange, gender, ethical, abusive, charismatic, and transformational leadership. Yet, many of the themes that characterize contemporary leadership research were also present in earlier research.

Miscenko, Darja, Guenter, Hannes, and David V. Day. “Am I a Leader? Examining Leader Identity Development Over Time.” The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 28, issue 5, 2017, pp. 605-620.

Abstract: The extent to which someone thinks of him- or herself as a leader (i.e., leader identity) is subject to change in a dynamic manner because of experience and structured intervention, but is rarely studied as such. In this study, we map the trajectories of leader identity development over a course of a seven-week leader development program. Drawing upon identity theory (Kegan, 1983) and self-perception theory (Bem, 1972), we propose that changes in self-perceived leadership skills are associated with changes in leader identity. Using latent growth curve modeling and latent change score analyses as our primary analytical approaches, we analyzed longitudinal data across seven measurement points (N = 98). We find leader identity to develop in a J-shaped pattern. As hypothesized, we find that these changes in leader identity are associated with, and potentially shaped by, changes in leadership skills across time.

Casasola, Marianella, Jui Bhagwat, Stacey N. Doan, and Hailey Love. “Getting Some Space: Infants' and Caregivers' Containment and Support Spatial Constructions During Play.” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol. 159, 2017, pp. 110-128.

Abstract: Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the containment and support spatial constructions infants spontaneously create and those they observe when playing with a nesting toy. Infants (N=76) of 8, 13, or 18months played alone for 2min and then played with a caregiver for another 2min. At 8months, infants created few relations; at 13months, they inserted objects, resulting in containment, and stacked objects, resulting in support; at 18months, they created more than three times more containment relations than support relations, a result replicated in a second study. In contrast, caregivers created more support relations than containment relations, regardless of infant age, but labeled containment more than support. The results highlight differential exposure to containment and support in infant solitary and dyadic play. By 18months, infants gain greater firsthand experience with containment, a relation that is further reinforced by caregiver labeling.

Dich, Nadya, Stacey N. Doan, and Gary W. Evans. “In Risky Environments, Emotional Children Have More Behavioral Problems but Lower Allostatic Load.” Health Psychology, vol. 36, issue 5, 2017, pp. 468-476.

Abstract: Objective: Developmental models of temperament by environment interactions predict that children’s negative emotionality exacerbates the detrimental effects of risky environments, increasing the risk for pathology. However, negative emotions may have an adaptive function. Accordingly, the present study explores an alternative hypothesis that in the context of high adversity, negative emotionality may be a manifestation of an adaptive coping style and thus be protective against the harmful effects of a stressful environment. Method: Prospective combined effects of negative emotionality and cumulative risk (confluence of multiple risk factors related to poverty) on children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms and allostatic load, an index of cumulative physiological dysregulation, were assessed in 239 children (46% female, baseline age = 9). Negative emotionality and cumulative risk were assessed at baseline. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured at 4- and 8-year follow-ups. Allostatic load was measured at baseline and both follow-ups using neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters. Linear mixed-effect models were used to analyze the prospective associations between negative emotionality, cumulative risk, and the outcomes—allostatic load and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results: The combination of high cumulative risk exposure and high negative emotionality was associated with highest levels of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, consistent with the alternative hypothesis, negative emotionality reduced the effects of high cumulative risk on allostatic load. Conclusions: In the context of risky environments, negative emotionality may offer some physical health benefits.

Doan, Stacey N., and Gary W. Evans. “Culture, Stress, Poverty and Allostatic Load.” The Handbook of Culture and Biology, edited by José M. Causadias, Eva H. Telzer, and Nancy A. Gonzales, Wiley & Sons, 2017, pp. 255-278.

Abstract: Recent conceptualizations of the consequences of poverty and stress have focused on allostatic load theory. The allostatic load framework argues that repeated and chronic exposure to stress leads to "wear and tear on the body," which accumulates over time. A large body of research has documented that poverty and its associated stress become "biologically embedded" and lead to later detrimental health outcomes, and recent work posits allostatic load as a possible mechanism. Researchers, however, have often neglected the role of culture in shaping these processes. In the current chapter we review the literature on poverty, stress, and allostatic load. We also explore the empirical evidence demonstrating race and ethnic differences with regard to allostatic load. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of culture, and elaborate on the ways in which culture may influence these processes at the societal, familial, and individual levels.

Doan, Stacey N., Twila Tardif, Alison Miller, Sheryl Olson, Daniel Kessler, Barbara Felt, and Li Wang. “Consequences of ‘Tiger Parenting’: A Cross-Cultural Study of Maternal Psychological Control and Children's Cortisol Stress Response.” Developmental Science, vol. 20, issue 3, 2017, e12404.

Abstract: Parenting strategies involving psychological control are associated with increased adjustment problems in children. However, no research has examined the extent to which culture and psychological control predict children's stress physiology. We examine cultural differences in maternal psychological control and its associations with children's cortisol. Chinese (N = 59) and American (N = 45) mother-child dyads participated in the study. Mothers reported on psychological control. Children's cortisol was collected during a stressor and two indices of Area Under the Curve (AUC) were computed: AUCg which accounts for total output, and AUCi, which captures reactivity. Results indicate that Chinese mothers reported higher levels of psychological control and Chinese children had higher levels of AUCg than their American counterparts. Across both cultures, psychological control was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels as indexed by AUCg. There were no associations for AUCi. Finally, mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological control fully explained cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response as indexed by AUCg.

Hong, Fang, Stacey N. Doan, Angelica Lopez, and Gary W. Evans. “Relations among Temperament, Self-Regulatory Strategies and Gender in Predicting Delay of Gratification.” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, 2017, article 1925.

Abstract: Self-regulation is associated with many positive outcomes, but there is limited information about individual difference regarding children's spontaneous use of strategies to self-regulate and the relative success of those strategies. In the current study, we examined whether temperament and gender are associated with self-regulation and explored the types of spontaneous strategies children use during Mischel's delay of gratification protocol. In addition, we investigated whether spontaneous strategy use during the task could moderate the effects of temperament on self-regulation and whether temperament would mediate the effect of gender on self-regulation. Participants were 349 9-year-olds (182 boys, Mage = 9.18, SD = 1.17). Mothers reported on children's temperament and the Delay of Gratification task was used to assess self-regulation. Both temperament and child's gender were significantly associated with children's delay time. Girls were able to delay longer than boys, and children scoring high on activity level were less able to delay. Activity level also mediated the relationship between gender and delay time. Finally, we found an interaction effect between activity level and certain strategies in relation to self-regulatory behavior.

Son, Heimi, Young Ae Lee, Dong Hyun Ahn, and Stacey N. Doan. “Maternal Understanding of Child Discipline and Maltreatment in the United States, South Korea, and Japan.” Children and Youth Services Review, vol. 82, 2017, pp. 444-454.

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine American, Korean, and Japanese mothers' perceptions of maltreatment, and the factors influencing those perceptions in the context of general parenting and discipline. Through a cross-cultural comparative approach, we hope to identify potential universalities as well as cultural specific perceptions of parenting behaviors. For this purpose, a total of 153 mothers with a child aged 3 to 6 years participated in the current study. Participants came from East Coast of the United States (N = 48); Seoul, Korea (N = 65); Japan (Tokyo and Saitama) (N = 40). A modified version of a previously established questionnaire (Ahn, Park, & Lee, 1998) assessed mothers' attitudes toward multiple disciplinary behaviors. This questionnaire presented 17 specific vignettes describing disciplinary scenarios that could occur while disciplining children in everyday life, some of which could be perceived as physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. Results of the study suggest significant differences between groups in terms of maternal perceptions of maltreatment and the factors influencing maternal perceptions. American mothers reported the highest mean score among the three countries in perceiving discipline centered on corporal punishment as physical abuse. Korean mothers displayed a dual attitude of perceiving the scenario as maltreatment, but also rating it as likely to occur in everyday life. Japanese mothers showed the most permissive attitude toward harsh parental behaviors among the three countries on the grounds that they considered a strict and punitive attitude as a method of discipline. Overall, mothers of all three countries had the lowest scores for perceiving the vignette corresponding to neglect as maltreatment.

Clay, Summer N.*, John A. Clithero, Alison M. Harris, and Catherine L. Reed. “Loss Aversion Reflects Information Accumulation, Not Bias: A Drift-Diffusion Model Study.” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, 2017, article 1708.

Abstract: Defined as increased sensitivity to losses, loss aversion is often conceptualized as a cognitive bias. However, findings that loss aversion has an attentional or emotional regulation component suggest that it may instead reflect differences in information processing. To distinguish these alternatives, we applied the drift-diffusion model (DDM) to choice and response time (RT) data in a card gambling task with unknown risk distributions. Loss aversion was measured separately for each participant. Dividing the participants into terciles based on loss aversion estimates, we found that the most loss-averse group showed a significantly lower drift rate than the other two groups, indicating overall slower uptake of information. In contrast, neither the starting bias nor the threshold separation (barrier) varied by group, suggesting that decision thresholds are not affected by loss aversion. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying loss aversion, consistent with an account based on information accumulation.

Hwang. Wei-Chin. “What's in a Name? Reflections on Race and Psychotherapy.” Voices: The Art and Science of Psychotherapy, vol. 52, no. 3, 2017, pp. 95-102.

Bermudez, C., T. Kanaya, and M. Santiago*. “Improving Family-School Communication with Parents of Long Term English Learners.” Communique: Official newsletter of the National Association of School Psychologists, vol. 45, issue 8, 2017, pp. 17-18.

Abstract: Long term English learners (LTELs) begin their education as English learners (ELs), students with limited proficiency in academic English. Instead of progressing through the stages of language acquisition and exiting EL programs and services within a few years, LTELs fail to demonstrate mastery of academic English and thus are identified as long term English learners after six years as English learners. LTELs suffer from chronically poor academic achievement, high dropout rates, and low high school completion rates (Olsen, 2010). LTELs are a marginalized student population in the United States today, yet most of their parents are unaware of the significance of their language classification and, more importantly, the negative consequences of not reclassifying, or exiting from LTEL status. The parents of LTELs would benefit from clear, personalized family-school communication that elucidates three things: 1) why their children are LTELs, 2) how they can reclassify out of that status, and 3) the potential benefits of reclassifying. We propose that school districts create "LTEL Progress Reports" which clearly and concisely covey these ideas to the parents of LTEL students in order to equip them to advocate on behalf of their children.

Band-Law, Bryn* and Daniel Krauss. “The Effects of Mortality Salience on Death Penalty Decisions When the Defendant Is Mentally Ill.” Journal of Aggression, Conflict, and Peace Research, vol. 9, issue 2, 2017, pp. 141-154.

Abstract: Mortality is a salient factor during capital sentencing. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role death plays in jurors' decisions when sentencing a severely mentally ill defendant who is subject to possible discrimination in a capital trial because of that status. Design/methodology/approach - The current experiment measured venire jurors' (n=133) mental illness dangerousness beliefs, and then experimentally manipulated type of mortality salience (dual-focused: participants who contemplated their own mortality and were exposed to trial-related death references vs trial focused: only exposed to death references) and the type of defendant (severely mentally ill vs neutral) accused of a capital offense. Findings - Mock jurors perceived mental illness to be an important mitigating factor when dual (i.e. self) focused mortality (DFM) salience was induced, whereas participants only exposed to trial-related death references considered mental illness to be an aggravating factor in sentencing and were more likely to evidence stereotype adherence toward the defendant. Practical implications - The implications of the authors' findings are problematic for the current legal system. During the majority of capital sentencing, jurors will only be exposed to trial-related death references, as individuals in the trial-focused mortality condition were. The findings suggest that these jurors are likely to engage in discriminatory stereotypes that do not consider fair process when making sentencing decisions. This research also suggests that mortality salience may be able to increase jurors' attention to such concerns in a trial scenario even when negative mental illness stereotypes are present. Originality/value - Research builds on existing terror management theory and offers a more nuanced perspective of how focusing on one's own death can affect jurors' reliance on stereotypes and lead to inappropriate decisions. Mortality salience can lead to decisions based upon procedural fairness when stereotypes and mortality salience are both present.

Garrett, Brandon, Daniel Krauss, and Nicholas Scurich. “Capital Jurors in an Era of Death Penalty Decline.” Yale Law Journal, Forum, vol. 126, 2017, pp. 417-430.

Abstract: We aimed to study the composition of potentially capital eligible jurors and whether they are affected by the state of the death penalty. Simply put, we wondered whether absence of punishment makes the heart fonder. Perhaps individuals might think that a death sentence still serves a symbolic purpose or a deterrent role even if an execution is unlikely. Or perhaps individuals would see less of a reason to sentence people to death if an execution might not occur for many years, if at all. We conducted surveys at the Superior Court of Orange County, California, of persons reporting for jury duty. Orange County is one of the leading counties in the country in the numbers of death sentences imposed; it is one of just sixteen counties in the country that imposed five or more death sentences since 2010. What we found was surprising. Surveys of jurors in decades past suggested that ten to twenty percent of jury eligible individuals would be excludable due to their substantial doubts about the death penalty. Despite the recent vote in California, and despite Orange County's status as a redoubt of death sentencing, we found that 35% or more of jurors reporting for jury service were Witt / Witherspoon excludable as having such substantial doubts about the death penalty that it would "substantially impair" their ability to perform their role as jurors. Indeed, large numbers went further (roughly a quarter of those sampled): they said that they would be reluctant to find a person guilty of capital murder knowing that the death penalty was a possibility. Such a person may be a "nullifier," as the Supreme Court put it in Lockhart, or a person "unable to decide a capital defendant's guilt or innocence fairly and impartially."

Gongola, Jennifer, Daniel Krauss, and Nicholas Scurich. “Life Without Parole for Juvenile Offenders: Public Sentiments.” Psychology, Public Policy & Law, vol. 23, no. 1, 2017, pp. 96-104.

Abstract: The United States Supreme Court recently abolished mandatory life in prison without parole (LWOP) for juvenile offenders, holding that the practice is inconsistent with the eighth amendment's cruel and unusual punishment clause, and its "evolving standards of decency" jurisprudence. The Court explicitly left open the question of whether nonmandatory LWOP is consistent with these constitutional standards. This article examines the public's sentiment concerning juvenile LWOP. An online sample (n 599) weighted to be representative of the U.S. population was queried about juvenile LWOP as a general policy and in response to a specific case in which they had to impose a prison sentence on a juvenile convicted of murder. The age of the juvenile was experimentally manipulated as either 12 or 16. Overall, 31% of participants favored juvenile LWOP as a general policy while 55% were willing to impose juvenile LWOP in a specific case. The age of the juvenile moderated this effect, such that participants were more willing to impose LWOP on a 16-year-old than a 12-year-old both as a general policy matter and in the specific case. A majority of participants were consistent in their preferred punishment across both the general and specific inquiries, including 30% who selected LWOP. Political affiliation was the only demographic variable that predicted consistency in preferred punishment. Additionally, participants who consistently endorsed juvenile LWOP placed greater emphasis on retribution and deterrence as goals of punishment while individuals who evidenced inconsistent punishment preferences placed a greater emphasis on rehabilitation.

Krauss, Daniel A. and Joel D. Lieberman. “Managing Different Aspects of Validity in Jury Simulation Research.” The Psychology of Juries: Current Knowledge and a Research Agenda for the Future, edited by Margaret Bull Kovera, American Psychological Association, 2017, pp. 185-205.

Abstract: Since the early development of psychology as a field in the early 20th century, jury decision making has been a central research area for those interested in the intersection of law and psychology. As Hugo Munsterberg stated in his book, On the Witness Stand, "The mental life, --perception and memory, attention and thought, feelings and will--plays too important a role in court procedure to reject the advice of those who devote their work to the study of these functions" (Munsterberg, 1908, p. 525). His focus on the application of psychological research to real world problems, however, was criticized by many of his experimental colleagues, and also received a scathing reception from legal commentators for his over-reaching of laboratory-based research findings to the complexities of legal processes. In fact, in the year following publication of Munsterberg's book, a leading evidence scholar, Charles Wigmore, published a satirical trial in which Munsterberg's pronouncements were prosecuted as fraudulent misrepresentations, and a fictionalized jury found him liable for overstepping the actual benefits psychology could provide to law (Fulero & Wrightsman, 2009).

Matthews, Miriam and Shana Levin. “Social Dominance Orientation.” The SAGE Encyclopedia of Political Behavior, edited by Fathali M. Moghaddam, SAGE Publications, 2017, pp. 764.

Abstract: Social dominance orientation (SDO) is a general psychological orientation capturing individual desires to establish and maintain group-based dominance and inequality. SDO is positively associated with beliefs that enhance hierarchical group relations, including sexism, racism, and homophobia, and negatively associated with hierarchy-attenuating constructs, including egalitarianism and universalism. Original conceptualization and measurement of SDO occurred during development of social dominance theory (SDT), an intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression promulgated by social psychologists Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto. SDT proposes a reciprocal relationship between SDO and social hierarchy: SDO is affected by hierarchy (e.g., members of dominant and subordinate groups show larger group differences in SDO in more hierarchically structured societies) and SDO reinforces hierarchy (e.g., individuals higher in SDO show greater support for the hierarchical structure).

Matthews, Miriam and Shana Levin. “Social Dominance Theory.” The SAGE Encyclopedia of Political Behavior, edited by Fathali M. Moghaddam, SAGE Publications, 2017, pp. 765-766.

Abstract: Social dominance theory (SDT) is a social psychological theory of intergroup relations developed by Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto. The theory explicates the forces operating at multiple levels to produce and maintain social hierarchy and oppression across the globe. These levels include social ideologies, institutional rules and practices, and individual actions. SDT proposes that mechanisms at different levels interact and jointly contribute to the creation and preservation of group-based hierarchical structures, and almost all stable human societies are structured along group-based hierarchies sustained by these interacting levels. In these hierarchies, one or a limited number of groups possess a disproportionate amount of desired elements, such as power, resources, and status, and at least one group experiences a disproportionate amount of undesired elements, including punishment, limited employment, and poor living conditions. SDT describes processes that occur within and across levels to produce systems of group-based oppression and inequality.

Clay, Summer N.*, John A. Clithero, Alison M. Harris, and Catherine L. Reed. “Loss Aversion Reflects Information Accumulation, Not Bias: A Drift-Diffusion Model Study.” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, 2017, article 1708.

Abstract: Defined as increased sensitivity to losses, loss aversion is often conceptualized as a cognitive bias. However, findings that loss aversion has an attentional or emotional regulation component suggest that it may instead reflect differences in information processing. To distinguish these alternatives, we applied the drift-diffusion model (DDM) to choice and response time (RT) data in a card gambling task with unknown risk distributions. Loss aversion was measured separately for each participant. Dividing the participants into terciles based on loss aversion estimates, we found that the most loss-averse group showed a significantly lower drift rate than the other two groups, indicating overall slower uptake of information. In contrast, neither the starting bias nor the threshold separation (barrier) varied by group, suggesting that decision thresholds are not affected by loss aversion. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying loss aversion, consistent with an account based on information accumulation.

Reed Catherine L., Summer N. Clay*, Abigail O. Kramer*, David S. Leland, and Alan A. Hartley. “Attentional Effects of Hand Proximity Occur Later in Older Adults: Evidence from Event-related Potentials.” Psychology and Aging, vol. 32, issue 8, 2017, pp. 710-721.

Abstract: Research with young adults has shown hand proximity biases attention both early (by the time stimuli are categorized as relevant for action) and later, selectively for goal-relevant-stimuli. We examined age-related changes in this multisensory integration of vision and proprioception by comparing behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) between younger and older adults. In a visual detection task, the hand was placed near or kept far from target and nontarget stimuli matched for frequency and visual features. Although a behavioral hand proximity effect-faster response times for stimuli appearing near the hand-was found for both age groups, a proportionately larger effect was found for younger adults. ERPs revealed age-related differences in the time course of the hand's effect on visual processing. Younger adults showed selective increases in contralateral N1 and parietal P3 amplitudes for targets near the hand, but older adults only showed hand effects at the P3 which were accompanied by concurrent neural activity in bilateral frontal regions. This neural pattern suggests that compared with younger adults, older adults may produce the behavioral hand proximity effect by integrating hand position and visual inputs relying more on later, task-related, frontal attentional mechanisms and less on early, posterior, multisensory integration.

External Grant: Reed, Catherine L. Co-investigator for IUSE NSF "Collaborative Proposal: Preparing Undergraduates for Research in STEM-related fields Using Electrophysiology (PURSUE)." Supplement Awarded 2017 (to University of Richmond) $5,000.

This awarded supplement funded a workshop for the development of a cognitive electrophysiology course in June 2017. It allowed 9 participating faculty members to meet and design the structure for the course. The workshop was held at the University of Richmond.

Aamodt, Michael G., Conte, Jeffrey M., Howes, Satoris S., Levy, Paul E., Riggio, Ronald E., and Paul E. Spector. “The Authors Speak: Six I-O Psychology Textbook Authors Discuss How They Decide What to Cite.” Industrial and Organizational Psychology, vol. 10, no. 4, 2017, pp. 606-610.

Abstract: In their focal article, Aguinis et al. (2017) provided a bibliometric analysis of our six industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology textbooks, noting among other things the sources, articles, and authors we collectively cited the most. Their analysis provides information about what we cited but not why. In this commentary on their article, our goal is to provide some insights into our process in deciding what sources to include and what not to include in our textbooks. Although each of us has our own way of deciding on the content of our books, there is enough commonality that we decided to write this commentary together.

Dibben, Mark, Wood, Martin, Macklin, Rob, and Riggio, Ronald E. “Rethinking Ethical Leadership Using Process Metaphysics.” Radical Thoughts on Ethical Leadership, edited by Robert A. Giacalone and Carole L. Jurkiewicz. Information Age, 2017, pp. 169-198.

Mio, Jeffery Scott, Ronald E. Riggio, and Rose E. Herndier. “Metaphor Density in President Obama’s and Governor Romney’s Presidential Acceptance Speeches: Implications for Leadership and Conveyance of Vision.” Acta Psychopathologica, vol. 3, no. 3, 2017.

Abstract: Metaphors in political speeches may enhance perceived charisma. The present study examined the nomination acceptance speeches of President Barack Obama and Governor Mitt Romney at their respective party’s 2012 political conventions. In Study 1, metaphors in the acceptance speeches were identified and categorized. President Obama’s speech was more heavily populated with metaphors, and these metaphors tended to be thematic, which spawned repetitive or resonant language. Where Governor Romney used metaphors, there did not seem to be themes or central ideas. In Study 2, 41 participants’ underlined passages in both speeches that they felt were inspirational. More of President Obama’s passages were underlined than Governor Romney’s speech, and Obama’s metaphor density remained greater than Romney’s metaphor density. Moreover, the passages underlined in Obama’s speech were primarily his thematic metaphors. To the extent that President Obama was perceived to be a more charismatic figure than Governor Romney, results supported the notion that metaphors add to perceived charisma. This has implications for business leaders attempting to convey their visions to company workers.

Riggio, Ronald E. “Behavioral Approach to Leadership.” Encyclopedia of Industrial/Organizational Psychology, second edition, edited by Steven G. Rogelberg. Sage, 2017, pp. 102-104.

Riggio, Ronald E. “Management and Leadership.” The Oxford Handbook of Management, edited by Adrian Wilkinson, Steven J. Armstrong, and Michael Lounsbury. Oxford University Press, 2017, pp. 276-292.

Riggio, Ronald E. “Power, Persuasion, and Bad Leadership.” Why Irrational Politics Appeals: Understanding the Allure of Donald Trump, edited by Mari Fitzduff, Praeger, 2017, pp. 71-85.

Riggio, Ronald E. and Karan Saggi*. “The Licensure Issue in I-O Psychology: Are We Trying to Police the Police?” Industrial and Organizational Psychology, vol. 10, no. 2, 2017, pp. 204-206.

Abstract: Many industrial and organizational (I-O) and consulting psychologists who engage in practice of their profession, for example as “management consultants,” compete against consultants with a wide array of backgrounds and disciplinary degrees. Indeed, in consulting work, one of us has competed against practitioners with backgrounds in fields ranging from accounting (CPAs) to sociology, communication, anthropology, business administration, and even those with degrees in divinity.

External Grants: Riggio, Ronald. "Early Life Predictors of Adult Success" BLAIS Foundation Grant (w/ Rebecca J. Reichard), 2017, $20,827

Riggio, Ronald E. "Early Life Predictors of Adult Success" W.K.Kellogg Foundation Grant, 2017, $50,000.

A study begun in 1979 - the Fullerton Longitudinal Study (FLS) - will explore the relationship between early life experiences and success as an adult. Funded with a $50,000 grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the now 38-year-old participants, who entered the study as infants at age one, will participate in a detailed assessment of their adult lives. The FLS participants, who, along with their parents, were assessed every year of their childhood, and again at ages 17, 24, and 29. These detailed assessments yielded thousands of measurements of their education, family life, extracurricular experiences, along with assessments of intellect, motivation, temperament and personality. The goal of the research is to study the impact of early life experiences on adult lives, with a focus on how early experiences affect educational attainment, career choice and trajectory, attainment of positions as leaders at work and in the community, family life, and perceptions of happiness, life satisfaction and success in life. Prior research on the FLS participants has found that motivation is a critical factor in pursuing higher education and in the attainment of positions of leadership. In addition, the study has found that the roots of adult leadership can be traced back to very early childhood temperament and experiences. This new research will continue to explore the role that early development plays in successful outcomes and lives as adults. The expectation is that this research will lead to early childhood development programs that will foster healthy and successful adult lives.

Riggio, Ronald E. "Early to Mid-Life Predictors of Leader Development" Army Research Institute, 2017-2020, $17,500.

Abel, Magdalena, Sharda Umanath, James V. Wertsch, and Henry L. Roediger, III. “Collective Memory: How Groups Remember Their Pasts.” Collaborative Remembering: Theories, Research, and Applications, edited by Michelle L. Meade, Celia B. Harris, Penny Van Bergen, John Sutton, and Amanda J. Barnier, Oxford University Press, 2017.

Abstract: Collective memory refers to remembrance of events that transcend the individual and are important to broader social identities (e.g., how Americans remember the events of September 11, 2001). Here, we first consider how to define the term and then discuss its relation to collaborative memory. We then propose potential theoretical mechanisms that might be crucial for furthering our understanding of collective memory. Throughout the chapter, we provide examples from both laboratory research and broader social contexts to illustrate our points. Collective memory is an interdisciplinary field that benefits from multiple perspectives.

Arnold, Kathleen M., Sharda Umanath, Kara Thio, Walter B. Reilly, Mark A. McDaniel, and Elizabeth J. Marsh. “Understanding the Cognitive Processes Involved in Writing to Learn.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, vol. 23, no. 2, 2017, pp. 115-127.

Abstract: Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy.

Brashier, Nadia M., Sharda Umanath, Roberto Cabeza, and Elizabeth J. Marsh. “Competing Cues: Older Adults Rely on Knowledge in the Face of Fluency.” Psychology & Aging, vol. 32, no. 4, 2017, pp. 331-337.

Abstract: Consumers regularly encounter repeated false claims in political and marketing campaigns, but very little empirical work addresses their impact among older adults. Repeated statements feel easier to process, and thus more truthful, than new ones (i.e., illusory truth). When judging truth, older adults' accumulated general knowledge may offset this perception of fluency. In two experiments, participants read statements that contradicted information stored in memory; a post-experimental knowledge check confirmed what individual participants knew. Unlike young adults, older adults exhibited illusory truth only when they lacked knowledge about claims. This interaction between knowledge and fluency extends dual process theories of aging.

Rai, Tage S., Piercarlo Valdesolo, and Jesse Graham. “Dehumanization Increases Instrumental Violence, But Not Moral Violence.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 114, no. 32, 2017, pp. 8511-8516.

Abstract: To eliminate violence, we must understand the motives that drive it. Most theories assume that violence is motivated by instrumental gain or impulsiveness, and is restrained by moral inhibitions. In these frameworks, dehumanization breaks down moral inhibitions by reducing perceptions of victims as fellow human beings worthy of concern. However, we argue that much violence is actually motivated by moral sentiments, and that morally motivated perpetrators wish to harm fellow human beings. Across five experiments, we show that dehumanizing victims increases instrumental, but not moral, violence. This distinction, between instrumental violence enabled by dehumanization, and moral violence directed toward human victims, has important implications for understanding how morality and dehumanization interact with violence, and for informing violence reduction efforts worldwide.

Rai, Tage S., Piercarlo Valdesolo, and Jesse Graham. “Our Enemies are Human: That’s Why We Want to Kill Them.” Aeon, December 13, 2017.

Valdesolo, Piercarlo. “How Awe Shapes Views of Science.” Scientific American, January 3, 2017.


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