History Department Events Archive

2017 - 2018 Academic Year

September 26: “Is the First Amendment Under Attack?” A Claremont Discourse Constitution Day Panel

Featuring: Lily Geismer (Claremont McKenna College, Associate Professor of History), Mark Golub (Scripps College, Associate Professor of Politics), and Jean Schroedel (Claremont Graduate University, Professor of Political Science) Moderator: Julie Liss (Scripps College, Professor of History)

Given the current climate in the United States, this year on Constitution Day, we must ask “Is the First Amendment Under Attack?” How should free speech, a guaranteed constitutional right, be defined? Should there be limits on what is protected? We have invited a panel of Claremont Colleges faculty to explore these complex and consequential questions.

September 28: Colonial Latin American Art in the North American Museum

Victoria Sancho Lobis, Claremont McKenna College Lecturer and Prince Trust Curator, Department of Prints and Drawings at the The Art Institute of Chicago

The last decade has seen a dramatic rise in the presence of Latin American art—especially paintings and decorative arts from the sixteenth through the early nineteenth centuries—in North American museums. The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the Art Institute of Chicago, among others, have all made efforts to present exhibitions, augment curatorial staff, and expand their permanent collections in this field. This shift in museum practice prompts broader questions regarding the norms of museum display and interpretation, not to mention the very boundaries of what is considered sufficiently canonical for inclusion in “encyclopedic” museums of art.

This presentation considers two current installations at the Art Institute of Chicago in 2017 as case studies within the larger context of contemporary museum practice: one on view in the European art wing, the other in the American art wing. What is the most compelling and appropriate context in which to present these objects? How can we establish aesthetic norms for them that may differ from those of European art of the same period? And how might these works and exhibitions reorient the dominant hierarchy of art objects?

For more information: please contact Professor Juliet Koss, Chair of the Department of Art History, Scripps College: jkoss@scrippscollege.edu

October 9: Ordinary Jews: Choice and Survival during the Holocaust

Drawing from his most recent book, “Ordinary Jews: Choice and Survival during the Holocaust,” Evgeny Finkel, assistant professor of political science and international affairs at George Washington University, will focus on how and why ordinary Holocaust victims chose their survival strategies.

October 10: Brazilian Agrigolpe: Brazil’s 2016 Parliamentary Coup and Challenge in Historical Perspective

Brazil’s crisis continues, supported by a powerful agribusiness lobby with deep historical roots. Clifford Welch, professor of contemporary Brazilian history at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, will detail the centrality of agribusiness support for the impeachment of President Dilma Rousseff in August 2016, and its opportunism in shaping the interim president’s policies. While the media has focused on corruption as cause of the crisis, he argues that historical perspective points toward the political opportunism of Brazil’s most traditional dominant class – the rural oligarchy – as it seeks to enhance its self-interest.

October 11: Impolitic Politics: How We Lost the Ability to Speak Across our Differences, and How We Can Rediscover It

American politics is in disarray. On our airwaves, talking heads and trolls shout past each other in a 24/7 stampede of snark and invective. And on college campuses, psychological theories of trauma dampen exchange and discussion. Jonathan Zimmerman P'18 talk will examine the origins of these patterns and suggest ways that our educational institutions can challenge them.

October 23
: Senior Thesis Advising session with Professors Cody, Petropoulous and Livesay

Faculty provided handouts and suggestions at the meeting on how to embark on a senior thesis in history.

October 26: Documentary Screening: "They Call Us Monsters" at the C.A.R.E. Center

CMC’s C.A.R.E. Center and the history department will host a screening of the documentary, They Call Us Monsters. They Call Us Monsters profiles the incarcerated youth at a high-security compound within the Sylmar Detention Center. They are Los Angeles county’s high-risk juvenile offenders, tried as adults for violent crimes and facing decades, if not hundreds of years in adult prison.
Join us and learn about opportunities to get involved supporting this community of young people! Pizza and drinks provided.

October 26: American Shtetl: A Hasidic Town in Suburban New York

David Myers, historian at UCLA, will explore the curious case of Kiryas Joel, a legally recognized municipality in the State of New York. Is this community's existence consistent with or a deviation from the American legal and political tradition?

October 30: Halloween Movie Screening: "The Witch" at Pickford Auditorium

The movie depicts a Puritan family cast out of their New England town for being too religiously radical. When they move to a new location, they become haunted by a witch. Professor Daniel Livesay will provide a short introduction beforehand and there will be a discussion after the movie. Snacks will be provided!

November 9: Meet Your History Professors Pre-Registration Social at the HUB Patio

Not sure about what to take next semester? Cold weather got you down? Swing by the Department’s pre-registration social and warm up with some hot chocolate, biscotti, and lively discussions of history. Ask faculty about their courses next semester or simply catch up with your favorite history professors!
Contact Professor Diana Selig for any inquiries.

November 10: “Impossible Criminals: The Politics of Marijuana Reform in the 1970s”

Please join the CMC History Department for a workshop to discuss a chapter of Matt Lassiter’s forthcoming book The Suburban Crisis: Crime, Drugs, and White Middle-Class America. Lassiter is the author of the Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South (2005). For more information and for a copy of the pre-circulated paper, please contact Prof. Lily Geismer.

2016 - 2017 Academic Year

October 11: Impolitic Politics: How We Lost the Ability to Speak Across our Differences, and How We Can Rediscover It

American politics is in disarray. On our airwaves, talking heads and trolls shout past each other in a 24/7 stampede of snark and invective. And on college campuses, psychological theories of trauma dampen exchange and discussion. Jonathan Zimmerman P'18 talk will examine the origins of these patterns and suggest ways that our educational institutions can challenge them.

October 26: American Shtetl: A Hasidic Town in Suburban New York

David Myers, historian at UCLA, will explore the curious case of Kiryas Joel, a legally recognized municipality in the State of New York. Is this community's existence consistent with or a deviation from the American legal and political tradition?

November 10: “Impossible Criminals: The Politics of Marijuana Reform in the 1970s”

Please join the CMC History Department for a workshop to discuss a chapter of Matt Lassiter’s forthcoming book The Suburban Crisis: Crime, Drugs, and White Middle-Class America. Lassiter is the author of the Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South (2005). For more information and for a copy of the pre-circulated paper, please contact Prof. Lily Geismer.

November 14: Meet Your History Professors: Cookies and Courses

The Department held a Meet Your History Professors event outside The Hub. It was a great opportunity for students to eat cookies and chat with professors about their courses on offer for the Spring semester!

January 25: History Department Pizza Party

To kick off the Spring semester, the Department held its Welcome Back Pizza Party! History students and faculty had the chance to enjoy good food and great company. Students and faculty also brainstormed together to generate ideas for programs and events to help the History Department grow.

February 16: The History of Intelligence

The History Department hosted a chat with Fran Moore, the former Director for Intelligence at the CIA about the role history plays in solving challenging intelligence problems and strategic analysis. Since it is informal, you're welcome to come and go as is convenient. So if you can be there you should! It's a really cool opportunity to learn about foreign affairs from an expert and eat Some Crust cookies. What's not to love?

February 17-18: Culture Wars: A symposium of Intercollegiate Late-Antique

2-day symposium | Smith Campus Center 201 (PO) | Feat. Professors Shane Bjornlie and Glen Cooper

February 18: BATTLESHIP USS IOWA Museum visit

With the support of CMC History Department and the CMC Crown Fund, the History Stewards and Professor Ian Hopper are excited to help bring history to life through this visit to a US Navy battleship which saw action in World War II, the Korean War, and the Cold War. History majors and non-majors are welcome to join this trip! Contact Johann

More information on the museum can be found on this website.

February 21: Sex, Lies and Politics in the Early Middle Ages

Yitzhak Hen discussed the correspondence between Bishop Chrodobert of Tours and Bishop Importunus of Paris, which reveals a fascinating story of episcopal enmity, sex scandals, and political alliance in the Merovingian kingdoms of the seventh century.

February 22: Envisioning the Vastness of Early America: The Origins of California's Early Inhabitants

Steven Hackel will talk about the history of California's indigenous population. In particular, he'll share his experiences building a digital humanities database that traces those populations' decline through Spanish mission records.

February 23: Racial Hierarchies and the Historical Process

CMC history professors Albert Park, Daniel Livesay and Sarah Sarzynskiwill discussed the strategies they have used to document and analyze racism, racial hierarchies, and the experiences of under-represented groups. The discussion is intended to help students deepen their understanding of the historical process and identify new strategies as they engage in archival research and historical analysis.

March 3: Careers in History & Literature Event

Enjoy a panel and informal conversation with recent CMC alumni who majored in History and Literature. The panelists, now working in a variety of private and public sector fields, will discuss how they have used their history or literature majors on the job market.

March 8: An Unlikely and Different Kind of Gay Activist

Cary Davidson '75 will document his personal and professional involvement in the effort to achieve LGBT equality including his role as general counsel in two major California statewide ballot measure campaigns regarding marriage, including Prop. 8.

March 24: Autry Museum Visit

CMC History Department will be organizing a museum visit to the California Continued exhibit at the Autry Museum of the American West on MARCH 24 (Friday). We will depart from 8th and Columbia at 10 AM and return no later than 3 p.m.
Admission, lunch and transportation will be sponsored by CMC.
The California Continued exhibit explores California’s contemporary environmental crises and the role that traditional ecological knowledge might play.

April 13: Pre-Registration Ice Cream Social

Unsure about what courses you want to take next semester? Interested in a history class? Miss interacting with your favorite history professors?

If so, come to the Department’s Ice Cream Social held in the week before pre-registration for the Fall semester. Professors will be on hand to answer students’ questions about the courses on offer and history in general. Students will have the chance to meet others who share a passion in history as well as grab some ice cream in the sweltering Spring heat.

April 28: Thesis Presentation Day and Dinner

As part of our yearly tradition, the Department will be holding a farewell dinner for the Seniors on the day of their thesis presentations (for full-year and Spring semester theses only). The CMC History community will gather to watch seniors present on their capstone of their education at CMC before partaking in food, farewell speeches and general merriment.

Academic Year 2015 - 2016

September 22: 'Internationalism' Performed: 6 week theater workshop
September 23: December 9: Semester of Bollywood

Academic Year 2014 - 2015

September 10: Exhibit Opening and Reception, “Over There, Over Here: A Glimpse of the Great War Through the Collections of the Claremont Colleges”

Keynote Lecture, Professor Roger Chickering, Georgetown University, "Imperial Germany’s Peculiar War, 1914-1918" Founder's Room, Honnold Mudd Library

September 22: Athenaeum dinner & lecture, Professor Barbara Metcalf, Prof. Emerita University of California Davis, ex-President AHA, on “Dogs Speaking and Women Writing” A Muslim Queen on Islamic Law and Empowerment in 19th C. India.”
September 25: Athenaeum lunch & lecture, Manisha Priyam, Fellow, Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, Delhi; author, forthcoming The Contested Politics of Education Reforms in India: Aligning Opportunities with Interests (2014) and co-author, Human Rights, Gender and the Environment (2009); "Analyzing the Election in India" (12:00 p.m.)
October 2: Faculty (Professors Evan Wollen and Wendy Lower) and Student Panel (The Great War, Hist 136) "The Making of an Exhibit on the Great War"
October 10: Trip to the Huntington Library and “behind-the-scenes” tour of the archives with institutional archivist, Jennii Goldman, ’03.
October 29: Andrew Feldherr (Professor of Classics at Princeton University) speaking at the Athenaeum ("History in the Mist: Reviewing Visual Representation in Ancient Historiography")
October 30: Andrew Feldherr (Professor of Classics at Princeton University) giving the semi-annual Harry Carroll Lecture in Classics at Pomona College ("Numidians, New Media, New Medeas: Tragedy and Transformation in Sallust's Jugurtha")
November 3: Athenaeum dinner & lecture, Ann Gold, Thomas J. Watson Professor of Religion and professor of anthropology, Syracuse University; co-author, In the Time of Trees and Sorrows: Nature, Power, and Memory in Rajasthan (2002) and Listen to Heron's Words; Reimagining Gender and Kinship in North India (1994)
November 12: RDS, Brown Bag, “The Business of Genocide” Peter Hayes, Northwestern University
November 12: Persecution of Homosexuals, Peter Hayes, Hist 137
November 12: Athenaeum, Peter Hayes, Northwestern University, "From Aryanization to Auschwitz: German Corporations and the Holocaust“
November 13: Edward Watts (Professor of History and Classics at UC San Diego) speaking at the Athenaeum ("A Job-friendly Education in the Humanities: The Late-Antique Side of the Story")
November 19: Athenaeum, Dr. Geoff Megargee, Historian, US Holocaust Memorial Museum, "New Research on WWII era Concentration Camps in Europe"
November 23: Getty Villa Excursion, led by Professor Shane Bjornlie, contact him to sign up for trip.
November 24: Film screening “JSA: Joint Security Area” (director: Park Chan-wook, 2000), 7-9pm at Kravis 102, the screening is open to public but the seats are limited. Contact Sinwoo Lee to sign up for the entry.
March 9; Athenaeum, Marci Shore, Yale University, "The Taste of Ashes: Post-Totalitarian Eastern Europe"
March 10: Athenaeum, Timothy Snyder, Yale University, "Bloodlands" Europe Between Nazism and Stalinism
March 11: Clifford Ando (Professor of Classics at the University of Chicago) speaking at the Athenaeum (title of lecture to be announced)
March 12: Clifford Ando (Professor of Classics at the University of Chicago) giving the semi-annual Harry Carroll Lecture in Classics at Pomona College (title of lecture to be announced)
April 16: Cam Grey (Professor of History and Classics at the University of Pennsylvania) speaking at the Athenaeum on environmental explanations for the "decline and fall" of the Roman Empire (title of the lecture to be announced)

Academic Year 2013-2014

May 4: Jonathan Petropoulos, John V. Croul Professor of European History, was on CBS Sunday Morning. View Degenerate Art: How the Nazis attacked modernism.

2013

February 7: Bruce Cumings Is the Gustavus F. and Ann M. Swift Distinguished Service Professor in History and the College and chairperson of the Department of History at the University of Chicago. America in the Pacific, From Polk's War to Obama's 'Pivot'.

In 2011, President Barack Obama announced a new American foreign policy of a “pivot to Asia.” This new strategy involves redirecting the focus of American foreign policy toward the Asia-Pacific region. Despite this new direction for the government, U.S. involvement in Asian-Pacific affairs has spanned over two centuries. Over this time, the U.S. has not only influenced the make-up and direction of that region, but U.S. interactions with Asian-Pacific countries has also dramatically helped to shape America’s industrial, technological, military and global rise to power. Drawing stories from his book Dominion from Sea to Sea: Pacific Ascendancy and American Power(2009), which was selected as one of the Atlantic’s 25 Best Books of the Year (2009), Professor Cumings will speak on these historical ties between the U.S. and the Asia-Pacific region and the present course of these ties under the Obama administration in his Athenaeum lecture.

Bruce Cumings is the Gustavus F. and Ann M. Swift Distinguished Service Professor in History and the College and chairperson of the Department of History at the University of Chicago. His research and teaching focus on modern Korean history, 20th century international history, U.S.-East Asian relations, East Asian political economy, and American foreign relations. Author of ten books, his first book, The Origins of the Korean War (1981), won the John King Fairbank Book Award of the American Historical Association, and the second volume (2004) of this study won the Quincy Wright Book Award of the International Studies Association. He is the editor of the modern volume of the Cambridge History of Korea (forthcoming), and is a frequent contributor to The London Review of Books, The Nation, Current History, the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, and Le Monde Diplomatique.

Professor Cumings was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1999, and is the recipient of fellowships from the Ford Foundation, NEH, the MacArthur Foundation, the Center for Advanced Study at Stanford, and the Abe Fellowship Program of the Social Science Research Council. He was also the principal historical consultant for the Thames Television/PBS 6-hour documentary, Korea: The Unknown War (1988). In 2003 he won the University's award for Excellence in Graduate Teaching, and in 2007 he won the Kim Dae Jung Prize for Scholarly Contributions to Democracy, Human Rights and Peace. He is working on a book on the Northeast Asian political economy.

Bruce Cumings’ visit to campus is jointly sponsored by the department of history at CMC and the Athenaeum.

April 4: Daniel Mendelsohn an award-winning writer, critic, and author of the international bestseller The Lost: A Search for Six of Six Million, was born on Long Island and educated at the University of Virginia and at Princeton. Since 1991 his essays and reviews have appeared in many publications, most frequently in The New Yorker and The New York Review of Books. He has also been the weekly book critic for New Yorker and a frequent contributor to The New York Times Book Review, and is presently a Contributing Editor at Travel + Leisure.

The Lost, published by HarperCollins in 2006, won the National Books Critics Circle Award and the National Jewish Book Award in the United States, the Prix Médicis in France, among many other honors, and has been published in over fifteen languages. Other books include a memoir, The Elusive Embrace (1999), a New York Times Notable Book of the year and a Los Angeles Times Best Book of the Year; a collection of his reviews, How Beautiful It Is and How Easily It Can Be Broken (2008), a Publishers Weekly Best Book of the Year; and an acclaimed two-volume translation of the poetry of C. P. Cavafy (2009), also a Publishers Weekly Best Book of the Year.

Daniel Mendelsohn’s honors include a Guggenheim Fellowship, the National Book Critics Circle Citation for Excellence in Book Reviewing, and the George Jean Nathan Prize for Drama Criticism. In 2008 he was named by The Economist as one of the best critics writing in the English language. Daniel Mendelsohn lives in New York City and teaches at Bard College.

April 12: Peter Balakian Adolf Hitler is purported to have said, "Who today remembers the extermination of the Armenians?" referring to the estimated 1.5 million Armenians driven from their homes by the Turkish Government between April and October 1915. The Armenians encountered government death squads and brutal conditions on their grim march to the Syrian Desert, which claimed countless lives.

Growing up in the affluent suburbs of New Jersey in the 1960s, Professor Peter Balakian, an Armenian-American, was unaware of the calamity that had befallen many of his relatives. The silence surrounding the Armenian genocide was only broken much later in his life, as elements of the tragedy slowly surfaced. Balakian’s search to uncover the hidden voices of his heritage has helped define his impressive and influential career.

Professor Balakian is currently Donald M. and Constance H. Rebar Professor of the Humanities in the department of English, Director of Creative Writing, and the first Director of Colgate’s Center for Ethics and World Societies.

Balakian has authored five books of poems, most recently June-tree: New and Selected Poems 1974-2000 (2004). His work has appeared widely in American magazines and journals.

His memoir Black Dog of Fate (2009), won the PEN/Albrand Prize for memoir and was recognized as a New York Times Notable Book. A national best seller, The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America’s Response (2003), was awarded the 2005 Raphael Lemkin Prize (best book in English on the subject of genocide and human rights).

He is co-founder and co-editor with the poet Bruce Smith of the poetry magazine Graham House Review. Balakian’s prizes and awards include a Guggenheim Fellowship; National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship; Emily Clark Balch Prize for poetry, Virginia Quarterly Review 2007 and the Movses Khorenatsi Medal from the Republic of Armenia 2007.


2012

October 8: Marcus Rediker, Raymond Dowd, History talk and luncheon at the Athenaeum
November 5: Jim Cuno, the President of the Getty, talk at the Athenaeum.

He addressed issues surrounding the disposition of antiquities at 6:45 p.m.

November 13: Tom Hayden

Spoke at Scripps about the 50th anniversary of the Port Huron Statement

November 26: Marcus Rediker, Distinguished Professor of Atlantic History, University of Pittsburgh, “The Amistad Rebellion: A History from Below”, talk at the Athenaeum
December 3: Jason Felch, the author of "Chasing Aphrodite: The Hunt for Looted Antiquities at the World's Richest Museum", spoke at the Athenaeum.

Felch discussed his "Wikiloot" initiative, which is an effort to "crowd source" the trade in illicitly exported antiquities. He also talked about the situation at the Getty ("the world's richest museum") and other institutions.


2011

February 16: Spanish Cinema, “Nueve Reinas”, written and directed by Favian Bielinsky, Bauer Center, Room 33, at 7:00 pm
Sigma Delta Pi, Spanish Honorary Society ceremony
April 14: Jennifer Burns, Assistant Professor of History, University of Virginia; author, Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right (2009); "Godless Capitalism: Ayn Rand, Faith, and Politics"
April 20: Timothy Naftali, director, Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum; author, George H.W. Bush (2007); "To Tell the Truth: Public History in a Public Museum"
May 2: Robert Martin, World War II veteran, will give a lecture in the History 149. America in Depression and War classroom of Professor Diana Selig

2010

Feb 10: Gina Kim, writer, director and producer of films, “Faces of Seoul: An Evening with Filmmaker Gina Kim,”6:45-8:00 PM, Athenaeum, Claremont McKenna College
March 8: Mark Edward Lewis and Walter Scheidel, Rome and China: New Frontiers in Imperial History
March 8: Suzy Kim, Assistant Professor of History, Emerson College, "The Woman Question: Making of North Korean Women as Revolutionary Mothers (1945-1950)" Parents Dining Room, Athenaeum, Claremont McKenna College
March 22: Teddy Cruz, Associate Professor in Public Culture and Urbanism, U. C. San Diego; Principal Architect of Estudio Cruz, "Radicalizing the Local: Bubble Urban Strategies". 6:45-8 PM, Athenaeum, Claremont McKenna College
October 6: Debashish Dey, student, teacher and performer of the Natyashastra of Bharata illuminates aesthetic theory in the class of Professor Nita Kumar.

2009

November 6: Nita Kumar, Professor of History, Claremont McKenna College: “Why We Hate To Love Bollywood”
December 2: Associate Professor in East Asian History, Jai-hoon Shim, visiting scholar from Dankook University, Yong’in, Korea lectures on the tomb of Qin Shihuangdi in the class of Professor Rosenbaum

2006

October 30: Nita Kumar P'10, Brown family professor of South Asian history, CMC; editor, Explorations in the Intellectual History of Colonial and Precolonial India (2001) and author, Lessons from Schools: A History of Education in Banaras (2000); "The Fantastic World of Gulnaz: Education and Modernity in India"
February 15: Jonah Goldberg, editor-at-large, National Review Online; author, forthcoming Liberal Fascism: The Totalitarian Temptation from Mussolini to Hillary Clinton (2006); writer and producer of documentaries Gargoyles: Guardians of the Gate (1995) and Notre Dame: Witness to History; "Fascism: A Work in Progress"
February 22: Michael Marrus, Chancellor Rose and Ray Wolfe professor of Holocaust studies, University of Toronto; author, The Holocaust in History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined (1987) and The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial 1945-46: A Documentary History (1997); Jurgen Matthaus, historian, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, author, Operation Barbossa and the Onset of the Holocaust (2004) and co-author, Contemporary Responses to the Holocaust (2004); Patricia Heberer, historian, Office of the Senior Historian, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum; co-editor, forthcoming Atrocities on Trial: The Politics of Prosecuting War Crimes in Historical Perspective (2006); John Roth, Edward J. Sexton professor of philosophy and religious studies, director, Center for the Study of the Holocaust, Genocide, and Human Rights, CMC; co-editor, Fire in the Ashes: God, Evil, and the Holocaust (2005) and Genocide in Rwanda: Complicity of the Churches? (2004); Jonathan Petropoulos, John V. Croul professor of European history, director, Family of Benjamin Z. Gould Center for Humanistic Studies, associate director, Center for the Study of the Holocaust, Genocide, and Human Rights, CMC, author, forthcoming German Royals and the Reich: The Princes of Hesse in Nazi Germany (2006) and author, The Faustian Bargain: The Art World in Nazi Germany (2000) (moderator); "After Nuremberg: Legal, Political, and Ethical Implications"
March 8: Erich Gruen, professor of history and classics, U.C. Berkeley, author, Diaspora: Jews Amidst Greeks and Romans (2002) and Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition (1998); "The Jew and the 'Other' in Antiquity"
March 20: Touraj Daryaee, professor of ancient Persian history, C.S.U. Fullerton; author, History and Culture of the Sasanians (2002) and The Spirit of Wisdom: Essays in Memory of Ahmad Tafassoli (2003); "Persian Culture in the 6th and 7th Centuries CE and Its Significance for World Civilization"