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2018 Psychological Science Publications and Grants

*Indicates student co-author

Charlop, Marjorie H. Naturalistic and Incidental Teaching for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2nd edition. Pro-Ed, 2018.

Abstract: Naturalistic Teaching Strategies are a group of procedures designed to provide treatment for children with ASD in a more loosely structured manner to mimic the natural environment. As such, these strategies promote generalization and maintenance of treatment gains. These procedures include components that increase child motivation, recruit a variety of change agents, and focus on teaching functional behaviors. This book provides a detailed description of naturalistic strategies, presents specific interventions. and highlights Incidental Teaching as a hallmark strategy.


Charlop, Marjorie H., Russell Lang, and Mandy Rispoli. Play and Social Skills for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Springer International Publishing AG, 2018.

Abstract: This book discusses the deficits in the development and presentation of play behavior and social skills that are considered central characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The book explains why play provides an important context for social interactions and how its absence can further exacerbate social deficits over time. It highlights the critical roles of social skills in development, and the social, cognitive, communication, and motor components of play. Chapters offer conceptually and empirically sound play and social skills interventions for children with ASD. Play activities using diverse materials and including interactions with peers and parents are designed to promote positive, effective social behaviors and encourage continued development. The book provides unique strategies that can be tailored to fit individual children’s strengths and deficits.


Lim, Nataly* and Marjorie H. Charlop. “Effects of English Versus Heritage Language on Play in Bilingually Exposed Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.” Behavioral Interventions, vol. 33, issue 4, 2018, pp. 339-351.

Abstract: An alternating treatments design was used to assess the effects of the language of instruction (English vs. heritage language) on the play skills of four bilingually exposed children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Baseline consisted of 5‐min free‐play sessions conducted in English. Intervention consisted of two alternating conditions: 5‐min play sessions conducted in English or the participant's heritage language. During intervention, a play‐related instruction, comment, and verbal praise were made every 30 s. Results demonstrated that participants displayed more play behaviors in the heritage language than English condition. Ancillary data for one participant indicated that the occurrence of challenging behavior was lower in the heritage language condition. Results are discussed in terms of the inclusion of heritage languages in interventions for children with ASD.


Rex, Catherine*, Marjorie H. Charlop, and Vicki Spector*. “Using Video Modeling as an Anti-Bullying Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 48, issue 8, 2018, pp. 2701-2713.

Abstract: In the present study, we used a multiple baseline design across participants to assess the efficacy of a video modeling intervention to teach six children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to assertively respond to bullying. During baseline, the children made few appropriate responses upon viewing video clips of bullying scenarios. During the video modeling intervention, participants viewed videos of models assertively responding to three types of bullying: physical, verbal bullying, and social exclusion. Results indicated that all six children learned through video modeling to make appropriate assertive responses to bullying scenarios. Four of the six children demonstrated learning in the in situ bullying probes. The results are discussed in terms of an intervention for victims of bullying with ASD.


Spector, Vicki* and Marjorie H. Charlop. “A Sibling-Mediated Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP).” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 48, issue 5, 2018, pp. 1508-1522.

Abstract: We taught three typically developing siblings to occasion speech by implementing the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) with their brothers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A non-concurrent multiple baseline design across children with ASD and sibling dyads was used. Ancillary behaviors of happiness, play, and joint attention for the children with ASD were recorded. Generalization of speech for the children with ASD across setting and peers was also measured. During baseline, the children with ASD displayed few target speech behaviors and the siblings inconsistently occasioned speech from their brothers. After sibling training, however, they successfully delivered NLP, and in turn, for two of the brothers with ASD, speech reached criterion. Implications of this research suggest the inclusion of siblings in interventions.

Church, Allan H. and Jay A. Conger. “The Rewarding Search for the Next High Potential.” People + Strategy, vol. 41, issue 1, 2018, pp. 6-7.

Abstract: The research in this article examines the processes and assessment tools used by large complex organizations to assess and development high potential talent. It discusses their methodologies and interventions along with strengths and limitations.


Church, Allan H. and Jay A. Conger. “So You Want to Be a High Potential? Five X-Factors for Realizing the High Potential’s Advantage.” People + Strategy, vol. 41, issue 1, 2018, pp. 17-21.

Abstract: This article describes research that identified five distinguishing attributes of high potential leadership talent across a wide range of industries and roles. It examines each attribute in depth as well as describing developmental interventions.


Church, Allan H. and Jay A. Conger. “When You Start a New Job, Pay Attention to These 5 Aspects of Company Culture.” Harvard Business Review, March 29, 2018.

Abstract: This article presents a framework for assessing five critical dimensions of an organizational culture and their implications for well-aligned job-person fit. It explores in depth the implications of each cultural dimension for an individual's work style.


Conger, Jay A. and Allan H. Church. “The 3 Types of C Players and What to Do About Them.” Harvard Business Review, February 1, 2018.

Abstract: This article categorizes poor performing talent into three distinct types. Interventions tactics are described to address the unique requirements of each type.


Conger, Jay A., and Allan H. Church. The High Potential’s Advantage: Get Noticed, Impress Your Bosses, and Become a Top Leader. Harvard Business Review Press, 2018.

Abstract: This volume examines how large complex organizations assess leadership potential in their management ranks. Specifically, it explores how organizations think about the different components of leadership potential - for example, which ones matter the most, which are most likely to be fixed traits, and which are traits that can be more easily developed - as well as the assessment means they find most and least useful. It describes in depth the attributes of high potential leadership talent that have been consistently identified across a broad range of organizations, roles and levels of the hierarchy. In addition, development strategies are discussed along with the identification of common derailers of leadership potential.

Krauss, Daniel A., Gabriel I Cook, and Lukas Klapatch*. “Risk Assessment Communication Difficulties: An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Categorical Versus Probabilistic Communication in Sexually Violent Predator Decisions.” Behavioral Sciences and the Law, vol. 36, 2018, pp. 532-553.

Abstract: Expert testimony concerning risk and its communication to the trier of fact has important implications for some of the most significant legal decisions. In a simulated sexual violent predator hearing, we examined how mock jurors interpret and use recidivism risk expert testimony communicated either categorically, using verbal labels, or probabilistically, using numeric values. Based upon the STATIC-99R, we compared mock jurors' decision-making and verdicts when we manipulated the style of risk communication across four different risk levels. In terms of verdict decisions, we found that higher risk levels were associated with more commitment decisions, but that this relationship only existed for the categorical risk-communication format. We also replicated previous research demonstrating that participants overestimate recidivism risk in general, especially when higher risk is communicated categorically. Finally, our participants did not differentiate well between the four levels of risk offered, instead apparently employing a more simplistic dichotomy between "low" or "high" risk for both their verdict decisions and their thresholds for commitment. The legal and policy implications of our findings are discussed, as well as suggestions for more effective presentation of expert risk testimony.

Costanzo, Mark and Zoey Costanzo. “The Penalty Phase of the Capital Murder Trial: A Social-Psychological Analysis.” Routledge Handbook on Capital Punishment, edited by Robert M. Bohm and Gavin Lee. Routledge, 2018, pp. 385-398.


Costanzo, Mark and Daniel Krauss. Forensic and Legal Psychology: Psychological Science Applied to the Law, 3rd edition. Worth Publishers, 2018.

Abstract: Costanzo and Krauss show students how psychological science can be used to enhance the gathering of evidence, improve legal decision-making, reduce crime, and promote justice. With the integration of fascinating real trials, cases and other examples of the legal system in action, the authors illustrate how research and theory can deepen our understanding of suspects, criminals, police officers, victims, lawyers, witnesses, judges, and jurors. Costanzo and Krauss accessibly illustrate the relevance of key research findings in social, cognitive, clinical, and developmental psychology to virtually every aspect of the legal system psychologists have studied.

Antonakis, John and David V. Day. “Leadership: Past, Present, and Future.” The Nature of Leadership, 3rd edition, edited by John Antonakis and David V. Day. SAGE Publishing, 2018, pp. 354-380.


Antonakis, John and David V. Day, editors. The Nature of Leadership, 3rd edition. SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Abstract: The Nature of Leadership includes the most important areas of leadership in a concise and integrated manner with impactful contributions from the most prominent leadership scholars and researchers in the field. Editors John Antonakis and David V. Day provide an in-depth exploration of the major schools of leadership as well as emerging perspectives. This fully-updated text includes new material examining followership, gender, power, identity, culture, and entrepreneurial leadership. The text concludes by unpacking philosophical and methodological issues in leadership such as ethics and corporate social responsibility.


Day, David V. and Aiden M. A. Thornton. “Leadership Development.” The Nature of Leadership, 3rd edition, edited by John Antonakis and David V. Day. SAGE Publishing, 2018, pp. 3-26.


Sadler, Anne G., Douglas R. Lindsay, Samuel T. Hunter, and David V. Day. “The Impact of Leadership on Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault in the Military.” Military Psychology, vol. 30, issue 3, 2018, pp. 1-12.

Abstract: Sexual harassment and assault are realities in the military. Recent reports indicate that these types of behaviors are not decreasing despite updated policies, better reporting procedures and increased resources. Leadership is offered as both an antecedent to and as a vehicle by which to address these destructive and criminal behaviors among the military ranks. A review of relevant leadership research is provided focused on unique aspects of the military that influence sexual violence, leader behaviors, and the full range leadership model. Through this review, recommendations are offered as to how the military can develop leaders to provide appropriate leadership at all levels to create the right climate in units to be resistant to sexual harassment and assault. Overall, the authors argue that leadership offers the greatest opportunity to prevent and reduce the consequences of sexual harassment and assault in the military, but that it must be integrated into intentional leader development and accountability efforts at both the organizational and individual level.


Steele, Andrea R. and David V. Day. “The Role of Self-Attention in Leader Development.” Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 12, issue 2, 2018, pp. 17-32.

Abstract: The ability to identify emerging leaders and to facilitate their leader development, is paramount for maintaining sound leadership within organizations, across time. However, research into the proximal antecedents of leader development remains in its infancy. The current longitudinal study sought to broaden current perspectives on the role of self‐attention in promoting leader development, namely growth in leader self‐efficacy and self‐reported emergence into leader roles. The leader development of a sample of 81 managers at an Indian IT company was tracked over three time periods, across approximately 12 months of employment. Random coefficient modeling was employed to model participants’ leader development as a function of their methods of self‐attention. As predicted, reflective self‐attention and ruminative self‐attention were shown to differentially relate to the leader development process. Obtained results have implications for identifying the most effective methods to assist individuals in leveraging their leadership potential.

Doan, Stacey N., Gerrit DeYoung, Thomas E. Fuller-Rowell, Cindy Liu, and Jerrold Meyer. “Investigating Relations Among Stress, Sleep and Nail Cortisol.” The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, vol. 21, issue 2, 2018, pp. 188-193.

Abstract: In the current study, we present data investigating the relationships among stress, sleep disturbance, self-control, and levels of cortisol (CORT) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in fingernail clippings. Currently, hair CORT is the only routinely used noninvasive, validated, biomarker of chronic exposure to stress-related hormones. Nail clippings represent an important potential alternative sample matrix for assessing chronic hormone exposure, as it offers a different timeline of hormone incorporation than scalp hair, and may be obtainable from populations in which hair either is lacking or is unavailable for cultural reasons. Moreover, there is established precedent for using fingernail clippings to attain biomarker data. However, the value of nail hormone assessment for psychological research is currently unknown due to a paucity of information on the relations between nail hormone concentrations and environmental or psychological variables. In the present study, we collected data from a low income, minority population (N = 47; 97% African American) to demonstrate feasibility and acceptability of nail collection and analysis of the adrenal steroids CORT and DHEA. Participants reported on perceived stress, sleep and self-control abilities. Correlational analyses suggest that exposure to stressful events, disturbances in sleep and waking were associated with higher levels of nail DHEA, while self-control was associated with higher levels of nail CORT. We discuss the potential importance of this methodology for investigating biological, behavioral, and subjective indices of stress and well-being.


Doan, Stacey N., Heimi Son, and Lawrence N. Kim. “Maternal and Paternal Emotional Contributions to Children’s Distress Tolerance: Relations to Child Depressive Symptoms.” Psychiatry Research, vol. 267, 2018, pp. 215-220.

Abstract: In recent years, empirical studies have shown that the inability to tolerate distress is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes including eating addiction, drug abuse, alcohol use, and antisocial behavior in adults. However, few studies have examined family correlates of this ability in children. Also, past literature on child emotional competencies has mainly focused on documenting the linkages between mother and child and has neglected the role of fathers. Children (N = 54, M age = 10.15 years, SD = 1.02; 55.6% males) and their parents participated. Parents reported on their emotion regulation strategies and children reported on their depressive symptoms. Distress tolerance (DT) was assessed using the computerized distress tolerance task, the Behavioral Indicator of Resiliency to Distress. Children who were able to complete the BIRD had lower levels of depression. Analyses examining relations among father and mother emotion regulation and children's DT showed children's DT is more closely related to their mothers’ than fathers’ emotion regulation styles. These findings suggest that DT is an important construct in understanding children's psychopathology, but also that maternal emotion regulation is associated with children's distress tolerance.


Doan, Stacey N. and Qi Wang. “Children’s Emotion Knowledge and Internalizing Problems: The Moderating Role of Culture.” Transcultural Psychiatry, vol. 55, issue 5, 2018, pp. 689-709.

Abstract: This study examined in a cross-cultural context the prospective relation between children’s emotion knowledge and internalizing problems. European American (N ¼ 33) and immigrant Chinese children (N ¼ 22) and their mothers participated. Children’s emotion knowledge was assessed at three-and-a-half years of age using a task to elicit their understanding of situational antecedents of discrete emotions. Mothers reported on children’s internalizing problems using the Behavior Assessment System Children (BASC) when children were seven years of age. The relation of children’s emotion knowledge to internalizing problems was moderated by culture. Whereas early emotion knowledge was associated with decreased internalizing problems later on for European American children, it was associated with increased internalizing problems for immigrant Chinese children. The findings shed critical light on the different functional meanings of emotion knowledge across cultures.


Kao, Katie, Stacey N. Doan, Ashley M. St. John, Jerrold S. Meyer, and Amanda R. Tarullo. “Salivary Cortisol Reactivity in Preschoolers is Associated with Hair Cortisol and Behavioral Problems.” The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, vol. 21, issue 1, 2018, pp. 28-35.

Abstract: The interplay between children’s cortisol reactivity to challenge and cumulative cortisol exposure is not well understood. Examining the role of cortisol reactivity in early childhood may elucidate biological mechanisms that contribute to children’s chronic physiological stress and behavioral dysregulation. In a sample of 65 preschool-aged children, we examined the relation between children’s salivary cortisol reactivity to challenging tasks and their hair cortisol concentration (HCC). While both are biomarkers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, salivary cortisol reactivity reflects an acute cortisol response to a stressor and HCC reflects cumulative cortisol exposure. In addition, we examined the relations of these stress biomarkers with internalizing and externalizing problems. Salivary cortisol reactivity was associated with higher HCC and with increased externalizing behaviors. Child HCC also was positively correlated with parent HCC. Results highlight the contributions of salivary cortisol reactivity to children’s cumulative cortisol exposure, which may add to their biological risk for health problems later. The observed association between externalizing problems and salivary cortisol reactivity indicates concordances between dysregulated behavioral reactions and dysregulated cortisol responses to challenges. The finding that salivary cortisol reactivity to challenge in early childhood plays a role in children’s cumulative cortisol exposure and behavioral development suggests pathways through which cortisol reactivity may influence long-term physical and mental health.


Kao, Katie, Srishti Nayak, Stacey N. Doan, and Amanda R. Tarullo. “Relations Between Parent EF and Child EF: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Parenting on Executive Functioning in Early Childhood.” Translational Issues of Psychological Science, vol. 4, issue 2, 2018, pp. 122-137.

Abstract: Executive functioning (EF) in early childhood is well-established as a predictor of developmental outcomes, yet the factors that influence emerging EF abilities and the interplay among these factors in predicting individual differences in EF have not been systematically explored. The present study assessed 3.5 to 4.5 year olds (N = 117) and their parent in the Boston Metropolitan Area. We specifically examine parent EF as a contributor to preschool children’s EF and the role of parenting in this association. We also explore how distinct dimensions of socioeconomic status (i.e., income, parent education, occupational prestige) may differentially moderate the relationship between parent and child EF. Parent and child EF were related, such that the better parents performed on EF tasks, the better their children performed on EF tasks. Parents who reported using more parental strictness in their parenting had poorer EF. In addition, income was the only SES indicator that moderated the relationship between parent and child EF such that only in lower income households was parent EF closely linked to child EF. Findings indicate that for children in lower income households, who are already at risk for EF deficits, parent EF played a significant role in early childhood EF skills.


Liu, Cindy H., Jenny Phan, Miwa Yasui, and Stacey Doan. “Prenatal Life Events, Maternal Employment, and Postpartum Depression Across a Diverse Population in New York City.” Community Mental Health Journal, vol. 54, 2018, pp. 410-419.

Abstract: This study examined racial/ethnic disparities in three core postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms, and identified specific predictors of PPD including sociodemographic variables, life stressors and maternal employment. White, African American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander women from the New York City area (n=3010) completed the 2009–2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. African American women were less likely to have PPD than White women. Maternal employment during the postpartum was associated with an increased likelihood of PPD for White women relative to women who were not employed. Life stressors and maternal employment should be considered as culturally contextualized factors related to postpartum depression.


Otto, Michael W., Eugenia I. Gorlin, David Rosenfield, Elijah A. Patten, Warren K. Bickel, Michael J. Zvolensky, and Stacey N. Doan. “Rescuing Cognitive and Emotional Regulatory Skills to Aid Smoking Prevention in At-Risk Youth: A Randomized Trial.” Contemporary Clinical Trials, vol. 70, 2018, pp. 1-7.

Abstract: Adolescence is a vulnerable period for smoking initiation, with disadvantaged teens particularly at risk. In addition, emotional and cognitive dysregulation is associated with an increased risk of smoking and makes it particularly challenging to benefit from standard substance use prevention interventions. The goal of the current study is to investigate the extent to which interventions designed to improve cognitive (working memory) and emotional (distress tolerance) regulatory processes enhance the effectiveness of a standard smoking prevention informational intervention. We will study adolescents (12–16 years of age) predominantly from racial/ethnic-minority and low-income households. Proximal smoking-risk outcome measures are used to allow testing of prevention models outside a full longitudinal study. We hope to generate new insights and approaches to smoking prevention among adolescents from lower socio-economic status (SES) by documenting the influence of working memory training and distress tolerance (mindfulness) interventions on cognitive/affective targets that place individuals at risk for smoking initiation and maintenance.


Tarullo, Amanda R., Srishti Nayak, Ashley M. St. John, and Stacey N. Doan. “Performance Effects of Reward-Related Feedback on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task.” The Journal of Genetic Psychology, vol. 179, issue 4, 2018, pp. 171-175.

Abstract: The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) is one of the most widely used measures of preschool executive function, yet relatively little is known about how altering emotional demands of the task affects DCCS performance. This study examined the effects of emotionally evocative reward-related feedback on preschool children's performance on the DCCS in a sample of 105 children aged 3.5–4.5 years. In a within-subjects design, children completed the standard DCCS and a modified version of the DCCS in which sticker rewards were gained or lost after each trial. With a reward at stake, children were more accurate but had slower reaction time on the post-switch DCCS. Another sample (N = 20) of 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds who completed the standard DCCS twice without reward showed no change in performance, indicating results are not due to practice effects. Findings demonstrate preschool children's ability to adjust their approach to the DCCS in the presence of emotionally evocative reward-related feedback by prioritizing accuracy over speed. Trial-by-trial reward-related feedback may facilitate cognitive control in early childhood.


External Grant: Doan, Stacey (PI) and E. Henshaw (Co-PI). Ohio Health Foundation Research Grant, “Happy, Healthy Loved: A Pilot Feasibility Trial of a Mobile Maternal Health Intervention,” 2018, $100,000.

Abstract: Due to the wide range of maternal and infant health benefits, major health organizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months postpartum; however, fewer than 1 in 5 U.S. women report doing so. Breastfeeding self-efficacy, or a woman’s confidence in her ability to breastfeed, is an important predictor of ability to persist in exclusive breastfeeding. Key theoretical influences on breastfeeding self-efficacy include support from co-parent partners along with physiological responses of anxiety and stress. Partners are uniquely positioned to be sources of breastfeeding support, yet few programs have attempted to involve partners directly. In addition, in-person interventions are costly, and limits participation due to time and financial constraints. Happy, Healthy, Loved (HHL) is a novel breastfeeding self-efficacy intervention delivered via mobile phone to primiparous women and their partners over the first three months postpartum. The program is designed to build self-efficacy through fostering active support from a mother’s partner and providing evidence-based strategies for coping with stress. At two days postpartum and post intervention, 200 breastfeeding, primiparous women and their partners will complete baseline assessments of stress, partner support, coping, and breastfeeding self-efficacy, along with a hair cortisol sample, a biological indicator of stress. Following baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to HHL or usual care. HHL participant pairs will complete a tablet-based education program in which they identify stress coping and support activity preferences along with motivations for breastfeeding and current challenges. This coping and motivation profile populates personalized text messages to mothers and partners to encourage support and coping behaviors. It is hypothesized that participants assigned to HHL, compared to those assigned to usual care, will report greater levels of breastfeeding self-efficacy and rates of exclusive breastfeeding, and higher levels of the proposed mechanisms (perceived partner support and stress coping) at three months postpartum. Additionally, the role of cortisol in identifying and predicting parental stress responses and breastfeeding rates will be explored. It is hypothesized that postpartum hair cortisol levels will be positively associated with prenatal stressful life events and negatively associated with perceived partner support and effective coping, and that women with moderate-high levels of hair cortisol would benefit most from HHL. Findings will determine preliminary efficacy of HHL, as well as increased understanding of the potential role of hair cortisol in parental stress responses.

Green, Danielle J.*, Alison Harris, Aleena Young*, and Catherine L. Reed. “Embodied Valuation: Directional Action is Associated with Item Values.” The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 71, issue 8, 2018, pp. 1734-1747.

Abstract: We have a lifetime of experience interacting with objects we value. Although many economic theories represent valuation as a purely cognitive process independent of the sensorimotor system, embodied cognitive theory suggests that our memories for items’ value should be linked to actions we use to obtain them. Here, we investigated whether the value of real items was associated with specific directional movements toward or away from the body. Participants priced a set of food items to determine their values; they then used directional actions to classify each item as high- or low-value. To determine if value is linked to specific action mappings, movements were referenced either with respect to the object (push toward high-value items; pull away from low-value items) or the self (pull high-value items toward self; push low-value items away). Participants who were assigned (Experiment 1) or chose (Experiment 2) to use an object-referenced action mapping were faster than those using a self-referenced mapping. A control experiment (Experiment 3) using left/right movements found no such difference when action mappings were not toward/away from the body. These results indicate that directional actions toward items are associated with the representation of their value, suggesting an embodied component to economic choice.


Harris, Alison, John A. Clithero, and Cendri A. Hutcherson. “Accounting for Taste: A Multi-Attribute Neurocomputational Model Explains the Neural Dynamics of Choices for Self and Others.” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 38, no. 37, 2018, pp. 7952-7968.

Abstract: How do we make choices for others with different preferences from our own? Although neuroimaging studies implicate similar circuits in representing preferences for oneself and others, some models propose that additional corrective mechanisms come online when choices for others diverge from one's own preferences. Here we used event-related potentials (ERPs) in humans, in combination with computational modeling, to examine how social information is integrated in the time leading up to choices for oneself and others. Hungry male and female participants with unrestricted diets selected foods for themselves, a similar unrestricted eater, and a dissimilar, self-identified healthy eater. Across choices for both oneself and others, ERP value signals emerged within the same time window but differentially reflected taste and health attributes based on the recipient's preferences. Choices for the dissimilar recipient were associated with earlier activity localized to brain regions implicated in social cognition, including temporoparietal junction. Finally, response-locked analysis revealed a late ERP component specific to choices for the similar recipient, localized to the parietal lobe, that appeared to reflect differences in the response threshold based on uncertainty. A multi-attribute computational model supported the link between specific ERP components and distinct model parameters, and was not significantly improved by adding time-dependent dual processes. Model simulations suggested that longer response times previously associated with effortful correction may alternatively arise from higher choice uncertainty. Together, these results provide a parsimonious neurocomputational mechanism for social decision-making, additionally explaining divergent patterns of choice and response time data in decisions for oneself and others.


Luna, Sebastian*, Daniel Lai*, and Alison Harris. “Antagonistic Relationship Between VEP Potentiation and Gamma Power in Visual Snow Syndrome.” Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, vol. 58, issue 1, 2018, pp. 138-144.

Objective: Using a “double‐pulse” adaptation paradigm, in which two stimuli are presented in quick succession, this study examines the neural mechanisms underlying potentiation of the visual evoked potential (VEP) in visual snow syndrome. Background: Visual snow is a persistent visual disturbance characterized by rapid flickering dots throughout the visual field. Like the related condition of migraine with aura, visual snow has been hypothesized to arise from abnormal neuronal responsiveness, as demonstrated by a lack of typical VEP habituation to repeated visual stimulation. Yet the exact neural mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Previous “double‐pulse” experiments suggest that typical VEP habituation reflects disruptive gamma‐band (50‐70 Hz) neural oscillations, possibly driven by inhibitory interneurons. Given that migraine has been associated with reduced cortical inhibition, we propose here that visual snow may likewise reflect diminished inhibitory activity, resulting in decreased gamma power following initial visual stimulation and concomitant potentiation of the subsequent VEP response. Methods: We compared VEP responses to double‐pulse adaptation in a 22‐year‐old man with a 2‐year history of visual snow versus a group of age‐ and gender‐matched controls (N = 5). The patient does not have a comorbid diagnosis of episodic migraine or migraine with aura, and controls had no personal or family history of migraine. Results: In contrast to the pattern of habituation observed in controls, visual snow was associated with persistent potentiation of the VEP response. Consistent with our predictions, time‐frequency analysis revealed reduced gamma‐band power following the initial stimulus in visual snow relative to controls. Conclusions: These results support an antagonistic interplay between gamma power and rapid neural adaptation, shedding new light on the neural mechanisms of VEP potentiation in visual snow.


Siqi-Liu, Audrey*, Alison M. Harris, Anthony P. Atkinson, and Catherine L. Reed. “Dissociable Processing of Emotional and Neutral Body Movements Revealed by μ-Alpha and Beta Rhythms.” Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, vol. 13, issue 12, 2018, pp. 1269-1279.

Abstract: Both when actions are executed and observed, electroencephalography (EEG) has shown reduced alpha-band (8–12 Hz) oscillations over sensorimotor cortex. This ‘μ-alpha’ suppression is thought to reflect mental simulation of action, which has been argued to support internal representation of others’ emotional states. Despite the proposed role of simulation in emotion perception, little is known about the effect of emotional content on μ-suppression. We recorded high-density EEG while participants viewed point-light displays of emotional vs neutral body movements in ‘coherent’ biologically plausible and ‘scrambled’ configurations. Although coherent relative to scrambled stimuli elicited μ-alpha suppression, the comparison of emotional and neutral movement, controlling for basic visual input, revealed suppression effects in both alpha and beta bands. Whereas alpha-band activity reflected reduced power for emotional stimuli in central and occipital sensors, beta power at frontocentral sites was driven by enhancement for neutral relative to emotional actions. A median-split by autism-spectrum quotient score revealed weaker μ-alpha suppression and beta enhancement in participants with autistic tendencies, suggesting that sensorimotor simulation may be differentially engaged depending on social capabilities. Consistent with theories of embodied emotion, these data support a link between simulation and social perception while more firmly connecting emotional processing to the activity of sensorimotor systems.

Hwang, Wei-Chin, Leslie C. Ho*, Courtney P. Chan*, and Kristyne K. Hong*. “Cognitive Behavioral Models, Measures, and Treatments for Depressive Disorders in Asian Americans.” Treating Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Ethnic and Racial Groups: Cognitive Behavioral Approaches, edited by Edward C. Chang, Christina A. Downey, James K. Hirsch, and Elizabeth A. Yu. American Psychological Association, 2018, pp. 23-47.

Abstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a worldwide, recurrent health problem that ranks as one of the world's top leading causes of disability (Burcusa & Iacono, 2007). Unfortunately, there is a dearth of research on depression for Asian heritage populations. Nevertheless, mood disorders continue to be the most prevalent psychiatric problem among Asian Americans and the main reason for seeking treatment (Barreto & Segal, 2005; Takeuchi et al., 1998). Because of stigma, Asian Americans delay seeking treatment and evidence lower help-seeking rates compared with White Americans (Abe-Kim et al., 2007; Alegrí¬a et al., 2008; Le Meyer, Zane, Cho, & Takeuchi, 2009). They are also more likely to present with greater psychiatric impairment at treatment entry (Hwang et al., 2015; Kalibatseva & Leong, 2011; Nguyen & Bornheimer, 2014). Naturalistic studies on Asian Americans have found lower treatment satisfaction, higher dropout rates, and worse treatment outcomes when compared with White Americans (Alegrìa et al., 2008; Leong & Lau, 2001; Zane, Enomoto, & Chun, 1994). In this chapter, we provide an overview of depression among Asian Americans (e.g., prevalence, etiology, and help seeking), discuss cultural issues in the assessment and measurement of depression, and conclude by discussing the cultural adaptation of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for Asian Americans.


Liang, Di, Vickie M. Mays, and Wei-Chin Hwang. “Integrated Mental Health Services in China: Challenges and Planning for the Future.” Health Policy Plan, vol. 33, issue 1, 2018, pp. 107-122.

Abstract: Eager to build an integrated community-based mental health system, in 2004 China started the '686 Programme', whose purpose was to integrate hospital and community services for patients with serious mental illness. In 2015, the National Mental Health Working Plan (2015-2020) proposed an ambitious strategy for implementing this project. The goal of this review is to assess potential opportunities for and barriers to successful implementation of a community-based mental health system that integrates hospital and community mental health services into the general healthcare system. We examine 7066 sources in both English and Chinese: the academic peer-reviewed literature, the grey literature on mental health policies, and documents from government and policymaking agencies. Although China has proposed a number of innovative programmes to address its mental health burden, several of these proposals have yet to be fully activated, particularly those that focus on integrated care. Integrating mental health services into China's general healthcare system holds great promise for increased access to and quality improvement in mental health services, as well as decreased stigma and more effective management of physical and mental health comorbidities. This article examines the challenges to integrating mental health services into China's general healthcare system, especially in the primary care sphere, including: accurately estimating mental health needs, integrating mental and physical healthcare, increasing workforce development and training, resolving interprofessional issues, financing and funding, developing an affordable and sustainable mental health system, and delivering care to specific subpopulations to meet the needs of China's diverse populace. As China's political commitment to expanding its mental health system is rapidly evolving, we offer suggestions for future directions in addressing China's mental health needs.

Costanzo, Mark and Daniel Krauss. Forensic and Legal Psychology: Psychological Science Applied to the Law, 3rd edition. Worth Publishers, 2018.

Abstract: Costanzo and Krauss show students how psychological science can be used to enhance the gathering of evidence, improve legal decision-making, reduce crime, and promote justice. With the integration of fascinating real trials, cases and other examples of the legal system in action, the authors illustrate how research and theory can deepen our understanding of suspects, criminals, police officers, victims, lawyers, witnesses, judges, and jurors. Costanzo and Krauss accessibly illustrate the relevance of key research findings in social, cognitive, clinical, and developmental psychology to virtually every aspect of the legal system psychologists have studied.


Kellerman, John*, Serena Faruqee*, Brendan Busch*, and Daniel Krauss. “Hot Tubbing as an Alternative to Adversarial Expert Testimony.” American Psychology-Law Society, Division 41, American Psychological Association Monthly E-Newsletter, April 2018, pp. 1-3.

Abstract: To combat the creation of expert biases and, even more importantly, courts' reliance on biased expert testimony, legal systems around the world have begun to explore alternatives to traditional adversarial expert processes. Initially developed in Australian courts, concurrent expert testimony, or "hot tubbing," is a practice in which the two experts sit together in the witness box and provide concurrent testimony. This method aims to decrease expert bias and increase juror comprehension (Reifert, 2011) by allowing judges and juries to question the experts, the experts to question each other, and providing jurors the opportunity to assimilate and make immediate comparisons between experts and their testimony. There is currently limited research examining whether the "hot tub" procedure accomplishes its intended goals. That said, preliminary survey data indicates promise, with one Australian survey reporting a 95% satisfaction rate among judges, experts, and attorneys (Greene & Gordon, 2016). Although hot tubbing procedures have been implemented in a number of legal systems world-wide, including Canada, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand, its appropriation to the U.S. system is still uncertain (Butt, 2017).


Krauss, Daniel A., Gabriel I Cook, and Lukas Klapatch*. “Risk Assessment Communication Difficulties: An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Categorical Versus Probabilistic Communication in Sexually Violent Predator Decisions.” Behavioral Sciences and the Law, vol. 36, 2018, pp. 532-553.

Abstract: Expert testimony concerning risk and its communication to the trier of fact has important implications for some of the most significant legal decisions. In a simulated sexual violent predator hearing, we examined how mock jurors interpret and use recidivism risk expert testimony communicated either categorically, using verbal labels, or probabilistically, using numeric values. Based upon the STATIC-99R, we compared mock jurors' decision-making and verdicts when we manipulated the style of risk communication across four different risk levels. In terms of verdict decisions, we found that higher risk levels were associated with more commitment decisions, but that this relationship only existed for the categorical risk-communication format. We also replicated previous research demonstrating that participants overestimate recidivism risk in general, especially when higher risk is communicated categorically. Finally, our participants did not differentiate well between the four levels of risk offered, instead apparently employing a more simplistic dichotomy between "low" or "high" risk for both their verdict decisions and their thresholds for commitment. The legal and policy implications of our findings are discussed, as well as suggestions for more effective presentation of expert risk testimony.


Krauss, Daniel A., Jennifer Gongola, Nicholas Scurich, and Brendan Busch*. “Mental State at Time of Offense in the Hot Tub: An Empirical Examination of Concurrent Expert Testimony in an Insanity Case.” Behavioral Sciences and the Law, vol. 36, no. 3, 2018, pp. 358-372.

Abstract: The role of experts and their presentation of testimony in insanity cases remain controversial. In order to decrease possible expert bias associated with this testimony, a number of different alternatives to adversarial presentation have been suggested. Two such alternatives are the use of court-appointed experts and the use of concurrent testimony (or "hot-tubbing"), in which opposing experts provide testimony concurrently and converse with each other directly. An experiment using a sample of venire jurors (n = 150) tested the effect of these alternatives. Results indicate that participants' pre-existing attitudes towards the insanity defense had significant effects on their comprehension of expert testimony, their evaluations of the two opposing experts, and their eventual verdicts, over and above the presentation format (i.e., concurrent vs. traditional testimony) or the use of court-appointed experts (vs. traditional adversarial experts). When concurrent testimony was presented, defense-favoring experts were perceived by jurors as more credible than their traditional counterparts, though comprehension of the testimony did not increase; nor did the presentation format or the affiliation of the experts affect verdicts. The legal and policy implications of the incorporation of the hot-tubbing procedure to US courts are discussed.

Garza, John P., Catherine L. Reed, and Ralph J. Roberts, Jr. “Attention Orienting Near the Hand Following Performed and Imagined Actions.” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 236, issue 10, 2018, pp. 2603-2610.

Abstract: Recent studies have documented that the hand's ability to perform actions affects the visual processing and attention for objects near the hand, suggesting that actions may have specific effects on visual orienting. However, most research on the relation between spatial attention and action focuses on actions as responses to visual attention manipulations. The current study examines visual attention immediately following an executed or imagined action. A modified spatial cuing paradigm tested whether a brief, lateralized hand-pinch performed by a visually hidden hand near the target location, facilitated or inhibited subsequent visual target detection. Conditions in which hand-pinches were fully executed (action) were compared to ones with no hand-pinch (inaction) in Experiment 1 and imagined pinches (imagine) in Experiment 2. Results from Experiment 1 indicated that performed hand pinches facilitated rather than inhibited subsequent detection responses to targets appearing near the pinch, but target detection was not affected by inaction. In Experiment 2, both action and imagined action conditions cued attention and facilitated responses, but along differing time courses. These results highlight the ongoing nature of visual attention and demonstrate how it is deployed to locations even following actions.


Green, Danielle J.*, Alison Harris, Aleena Young*, and Catherine L. Reed. “Embodied Valuation: Directional Action is Associated with Item Values.” The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 71, issue 8, 2018, pp. 1734-1747.

Abstract: We have a lifetime of experience interacting with objects we value. Although many economic theories represent valuation as a purely cognitive process independent of the sensorimotor system, embodied cognitive theory suggests that our memories for items’ value should be linked to actions we use to obtain them. Here, we investigated whether the value of real items was associated with specific directional movements toward or away from the body. Participants priced a set of food items to determine their values; they then used directional actions to classify each item as high- or low-value. To determine if value is linked to specific action mappings, movements were referenced either with respect to the object (push toward high-value items; pull away from low-value items) or the self (pull high-value items toward self; push low-value items away). Participants who were assigned (Experiment 1) or chose (Experiment 2) to use an object-referenced action mapping were faster than those using a self-referenced mapping. A control experiment (Experiment 3) using left/right movements found no such difference when action mappings were not toward/away from the body. These results indicate that directional actions toward items are associated with the representation of their value, suggesting an embodied component to economic choice.


Moody, Eric J., Catherine L. Reed, Tara Van Bommel*, Betsy App*, and Daniel N. McIntosh. “Emotional Mimicry Beyond the Face: Rapid Face and Body Responses to Facial Expressions.” Social Psychological and Personality Science, vol. 9, no. 7, 2018, pp. 844-852.

Abstract: Emotional mimicry - quick and spontaneous matching of another's expressions - is a well-documented phenomenon that is associated with numerous social outcomes. Although the mechanisms underlying mimicry are not fully understood, there is growing awareness that it is more than a one-to-one motor matching of others' expressions and may be the result of neural simulation. If true, it is possible that mimicry could extend to other parts of the body, even in the absence of visual information from that body part. Indeed, we found that passively viewing anger and fear expressions, without accompanying information from the body, voice or other channels, produced both facial mimicry and corresponding responses in arm muscles that make a fist or a defensive posture. This suggests that observers simulated observed expressions and that activity may have spilled over to other areas to create a body response.


Morrisey, Marcus Neil, Catherine L. Reed, Daniel N. McIntosh, and M.D. Rutherford. “Brief Report: Attentional Cueing to Images of Social Interactions is Automatic for Neurotypical Individuals But Not Those with ASC.” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 48, issue 9, 2018, pp. 3233-3243.

Abstract: Human actions induce attentional orienting toward the target of the action. We examined the influence of action cueing in social (man throwing toward a human) and non-social (man throwing toward a tree) contexts in observers with and without autism spectrum condition (ASC). Results suggested that a social interaction enhanced the cueing effect for neurotypical participants. Participants with ASC did not benefit from non-predictive cues and were slower in social contexts, although they benefitted from reliably predictive cues. Social orienting appears to be automatic in the context of an implied social interaction for neurotypical observers, but not those with ASC. Neurotypical participants’ behavior may be driven by automatic processing, while participants with ASC use an alternative, effortful strategy.


Reed, Catherine L., Cindy M. Bukach, Matthew Garber, and Daniel N. McIntosh. “It’s Not All About the Face: Variability Reveals Asymmetric Obligatory Processing of Faces and Bodies in Whole-Body Contexts.” Perception, vol. 47, issue 6, 2018, pp. 626-646.

Abstract: Researchers have sought to understand the specialized processing of faces and bodies in isolation, but recently they have considered how face and body information interact within the context of the whole body. Although studies suggest that face and body information can be integrated, it remains an open question whether this integration is obligatory and whether contributions of face and body information are symmetrical. In a selective attention task with whole-body stimuli, we focused attention on either the face or body and tested whether variation in the irrelevant part could be ignored. We manipulated orientation to determine the extent to which inversion disrupted obligatory face and body processing. Obligatory processing was evidenced as performance changes in discrimination that depended on stimulus orientation when the irrelevant region varied. For upright but not inverted face discrimination, participants could not ignore body posture variation, even when it was not diagnostic to the task. However, participants could ignore face variation for upright body posture discrimination but not for inverted posture discrimination. The extent to which face and body information necessarily influence each other in whole-body contexts appears to depend on both domain-general attentional and face- or body-specific holistic processing mechanisms.


Reed, Catherine L., John P. Garza, and Daivik B. Vyas*. “Feeling But Not Seeing the Hand: Occluded Hand Position Reduces the Hand Proximity Effect in ERPs.” Consciousness and Cognition, vol. 64, 2018, pp. 154-163.

Abstract: The hand proximity effect (nearby hands influence visual processing) reflects the integration of vision and proprioception for upcoming action; it is reduced when hand position is occluded. In an ERP study, we investigate whether hand proximity, without vision of the hand, accentuates the processing of stimuli requiring actions (targets) early (N1) and later (P3) in processing. In a go/no-go paradigm, participants viewed stimuli between two panels with hands placed near or far from stimuli. Occlusion of the hand eliminated near-hand target vs. non-target differentiation of the N1; amplification of near-hand target amplitudes emerged at the P3. Visual hand location appears necessary to draw visual attention to intended-action objects to integrate body and visual information early in processing. The integration of visual stimulus information and hand position from proprioception appears later in processing, indicating greater reliance on cognitive systems for discriminating the task-relevance of a stimulus.


Reed, Catherine L. and Mounia Ziat. “Haptic Perception: From the Skin to the Brain.” Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, 2018, pp. 1-12.

Abstract: Our sense of touch connects us physically with the external world. Haptic perception, or somesthesis, refers to our ability to apprehend information through touch. Not only do objects in the world touch us but also we explore our environment actively with our hands, fingers, and bodies. We use the motor capabilities of our hands to extract important characteristics necessary for identifying and using objects. Thus, the haptic system is designed for processing the material properties of objects and surfaces via the mediation of cutaneous and kinesthetic afferent subsystems. The passive aspect of haptic perception is often called tactile perception, and it refers to sensations gleaned from being touched by items in the outside world. Mechanoreceptors and thermoreceptors in the skin (e.g., cutaneous inputs) contribute largely to this tactile aspect of haptic perception. However, haptic perception also includes active touch and the sensations that result from the stimulation of receptors in muscles, tendons, and joints (e.g., proprioceptive and kinesthetic inputs). Our understanding of the neural bases of haptic perception from the skin to the brain is based on the study of perceptual and neurophysiological responses in animals and humans.


Siqi-Liu, Audrey*, Alison M. Harris, Anthony P. Atkinson, and Catherine L. Reed. “Dissociable Processing of Emotional and Neutral Body Movements Revealed by μ-Alpha and Beta Rhythms.” Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, vol. 13, issue 12, 2018, pp. 1269-1279.

Abstract: Both when actions are executed and observed, electroencephalography (EEG) has shown reduced alpha-band (8–12 Hz) oscillations over sensorimotor cortex. This ‘μ-alpha’ suppression is thought to reflect mental simulation of action, which has been argued to support internal representation of others’ emotional states. Despite the proposed role of simulation in emotion perception, little is known about the effect of emotional content on μ-suppression. We recorded high-density EEG while participants viewed point-light displays of emotional vs neutral body movements in ‘coherent’ biologically plausible and ‘scrambled’ configurations. Although coherent relative to scrambled stimuli elicited μ-alpha suppression, the comparison of emotional and neutral movement, controlling for basic visual input, revealed suppression effects in both alpha and beta bands. Whereas alpha-band activity reflected reduced power for emotional stimuli in central and occipital sensors, beta power at frontocentral sites was driven by enhancement for neutral relative to emotional actions. A median-split by autism-spectrum quotient score revealed weaker μ-alpha suppression and beta enhancement in participants with autistic tendencies, suggesting that sensorimotor simulation may be differentially engaged depending on social capabilities. Consistent with theories of embodied emotion, these data support a link between simulation and social perception while more firmly connecting emotional processing to the activity of sensorimotor systems.


External Grant: Reed, Catherine L. (PI). National Science Foundation, “Collaborative Proposal: Preparing Undergraduates for Research in STEM-Related Fields Using Electrophysiology (PURSUE),” Whole Grant Supplement, 2018, $17,270.

Abstract: We request supplemental funding for two, 2-day faculty learning community workshops to achieve our grant's stated goals of 1) facilitating a functional faculty learning community, 2) revising introductory materials, and 3) completing modules for a semester long course. Dedicated 2-day meetings with 3 PIs and 6 participating faculty are necessary to overcome roadblocks we discovered in arranging the planned annual workshops funded in our initial grant proposal about using cognitive electrophysiology for undergraduate STEM teaching and learning. These workshops are essential to our goals because our project asks participating faculty to share their ideas and materials, as well as their experiences and challenges in teaching electrophysiology to undergraduates. We also ask faculty to critique our materials. These activities require a level of trust and comfort. In-person meetings are critical for establishing that trust and for the dynamic exchange of ideas. We anticipate that these meetings will result in enhanced quality of input from our participating faculty, as evidenced by the successful year-1 workshop. Intellectual Merit: The proposed workshops help us meet the goals of our grant in terms of proposed outcomes and an established faculty learning community. Extended two-day meetings provide the time to evaluate, integrate, and revise the course materials with the participating faculty and to collaboratively build a framework for the full year cognitive electrophysiology course. Completing a collaborative framework for the full course will increase the flexibility and usability of our course materials so that they can be implemented in diverse contexts. Further, in-person meetings are essential to establish a PUI faculty learning community for cognitive electrophysiology. The requested supplement to host two 2-day workshops with participating faculty will significantly enhance the success of the project goals and provides additional opportunities to enrich pedagogical approaches to teaching STEM-related content at the three PI institutions and the 6 institutions of participating faculty. Activities focusing on evidence-based pedagogical principles, reflections on course design, and discussions of assessment approaches should enhance teaching skills for participating faculty that can generalize to other courses as well. Broader Impacts: These two 2-day workshops will broaden the scope of our initial proposal by allowing the faculty at a diverse selection of participating institutions, and ultimately their undergraduate students, to experience STEM teaching and learning through developing proficiency with cognitive electrophysiology. In addition, hosting the workshop at UR will allow the UR undergraduate students funded by the NSF grant to attend some of the workshop meetings and more fully participate in the course development. This opportunity will enhance their educational experience by exposing them to a cooperative model of curriculum development and a deeper understanding of the ERP method, leading to better training of the next generation of STEM educators and researchers.


External Grant: Reed, Catherine L. (PI). National Science Foundation, “Collaborative Proposal: Preparing Undergraduates for Research in STEM-Related Fields Using Electrophysiology (PURSUE), Sabbatical Grant Supplement, 2018, $37,372.

Abstract: Intellectual Merit. This project investigates how student learning communities (SLCs) outside the classroom can contribute to undergraduate STEM course design. Few studies have formally analyzed how collaborations among undergraduates with faculty guidance affect the application of best practices to course materials and student career aspirations. Proposal. Building on an existing course development project with established faculty learning communities and SLCs, we will conduct novel analyses of SLC input to course product creation, revision, and assessment. Specifically, data collection is designed to address three aims: 1) To assess unique undergraduate student contributions to the design of materials for a freely downloadable cognitive electrophysiology course: How might contributions from FLCs and SLCs affect specific aspects of course development (e.g., the cycle of feedback and revision)? Do SLCs help target examples and levels of discussion appropriate for undergraduates, increasing the depth of learning and engagement of students exposed to these materials? 2) To assess student benefits from involvement in small and larger SLCs: How does this collaborative FLC+SLC approach help student members of the SLC develop their own knowledge and professional aspirations? 3) To assess whether students taking classes value student input in course creation: Do SLC contributions influence subsequent perceptions and engagement of undergraduates using those materials? Using a mixed model analysis approach, we will analyze quantitative data from Likert-rating questions as well as qualitative, categorical data from free responses and semi-structured interviews. Broader Impact. Project outcomes may provide practical suggestions for course design that is firmly grounded in best teaching practices, explore whether undergraduate participation in SLCs provides students pedagogical and professional advantages including additional and enriched opportunities for women and underrepresented students, and determine if larger, structured investigation of SLCs would be warranted for educators more broadly.

Baxter, Claire*, Connor Bowen*, A. Garcia, M. Ono*, Alina Rainsford*, Heidi R. Riggio, Shelby Taylor, and Ronald E. Riggio. Instructor's Resource Materials for Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology, 7th edition. Taylor & Francis/Routledge, 2018.


Christian, Julie, Daniella Nayyar, Ronald Riggio, and Dominic Abrams. “Them and Us: Did Democrat Inclusiveness and Republican Solidarity Lead to the 2016 US Presidential Election Outcome?” Leadership, vol. 14, issue 5, 2018, pp. 524-542.

Abstract: This research examined the role that group dynamics played in the 2016 US presidential election. Just prior to the election, participants were assessed on perceived self-similarity to group members’ views, perception of own leader’s prototypicality, perceptions of social values, and strength of support (attitudes). Results indicated that Democrats were more inclusive, seeing more similarity between themselves and members from the outgroup political party, while Republicans displayed more ingroup solidarity and negative attitudes toward outgroup members. Trump was viewed as a more prototypical leader by Republicans than Clinton was by Democrats. These results may help to explain the perhaps surprising fragility of Democrat voters’ support for Clinton.


Riggio, Ronald E. “Decoding the Workplace: 50 Keys to Understanding People in Organizations,” by John Ballard. Academy of Management Learning & Education, vol. 17, no. 2, 2018, pp. 229-230.


Riggio, Ronald E. Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology, 7th edition. Taylor & Francis/Routledge, 2018.

Abstract: This best-selling text provides an accessible approach to psychological theory and its applications to the world of work. The seventh edition is thoroughly updated to include the latest research on each key topic. It also includes expanded coverage of international issues, job engagement, and emerging topics in the field, such as workplace bullying, virtual teams and organizations, agile organization structures, and web-based training and assessment.


Sy, Thomas, Calen Horton, and Ronald Riggio. “Charismatic Leadership: Eliciting and Channeling Follower Emotions.” The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 29, issue 1, 2018, pp. 58-69.

Abstract: Research on charismatic leadership has been criticized for the ambiguity of its central construct. Attempts to define and measure charisma have frequently treated it as a complex construct consisting of multiple components. However, little work has been done to develop a theoretical model that offers a parsimonious rationale explaining why certain leadership attributes are considered “charismatic” while others are not, or how these attributes combine to produce charismatic effects. Addressing these issues, we present a model that situates emotion as the primary variable in the charismatic process. We use recent research on the moral emotions to frame a theory of followership-relevant emotions (FREs) that describes how leaders use emotions such as compassion, admiration, and anger to compel their followers to act. We then discuss the Elicit-Channel (EC) model of charismatic leadership, positing that the charismatic relationship is a five-step, cyclical process. In the EC model, leaders elicit highly motivating emotions from their followers and then channel those emotions to produce action that, if successful, results in outcomes such as positive affect and trust. These outcomes then enable the leader to continue the cycle, eliciting emotion once more. We conclude by offering a research agenda, addressing potential methodological concerns, and discussing future directions.

Abel, Magdalena, Sharda Umanath, James V. Wertsch, and Henry L. Roediger, III. “Collective Memory: How Groups Remember Their Past.” Collaborative Remembering: Theories, Research, and Applications, edited by Michelle L. Meade, Celia B. Harris, Penny Van Bergen, and John Suttong. Oxford University Press, 2018, pp. 261-296.

Abstract: Studies of collective memory address how people create and maintain a shared representation of their group's past and group identity. In particular, this chapter considers how knowledge representations and schematic narrative templates (recurring stories of the past) contribute to collective remembering. Diverging memories between groups can cause conflict, so examining how different group's varying memories of "the same event" can cause misunderstandings is critical. Whether (and how) groups can mediate their differences to attempt to reach consensus about the past is also considered, using narratives of World War II as a case study. The study of collective memory comprises many different senses of the term remembering, and this chapter emphasizes the benefits of interdisciplinary collaboration to examine the issues from multiple perspectives.


Huff, Mark J. and Sharda Umanath. “Evaluating Suggestibility to Additive and Contradictory Misinformation Following Explicit Error Detection in Younger and Older Adults.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, vol. 24, no. 2, 2018, pp. 180-195.

Abstract: In two experiments, we assessed age-related suggestibility to additive and contradictory misinformation (i.e., remembering of false details from an external source). After reading a fictional story, participants answered questions containing misleading details that were either additive (misleading details that supplemented an original event) or contradictory (errors that changed original details). On a final test, suggestibility was greater for additive than contradictory misinformation, and older adults endorsed fewer false contradictory details than younger adults. To mitigate suggestibility in Experiment 2, participants were warned about potential errors, instructed to detect errors, or instructed to detect errors after exposure to examples of additive and contradictory details. Again, suggestibility to additive misinformation was greater than contradictory, and older adults endorsed less contradictory misinformation. Only after detection instructions with misinformation examples were younger adults able to reduce contradictory misinformation effects and reduced these effects to the level of older adults. Additive misinformation however, was immune to all warning and detection instructions. Thus, older adults were less susceptible to contradictory misinformation errors, and younger adults could match this misinformation rate when warning/detection instructions were strong.

Graham, Jesse and Piercarlo Valdesolo. “Morality.” The Oxford Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology, edited by Kay Deaux and Mark Snyder. Oxford University Press, 2018, pp. 317-342.


Rai, Tage S., Piercarlo Valdesolo, and Jesse Graham. “Reply to Fincher et al.: Conceptual Specificity in Dehumanization Research is a Feature, Not a Bug.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 115, issue 15, 2018, E3331-E3332.


Valdesolo, Piercarlo. “The Danger of Judging Scientists by What They Discover.” Scientific American, September 18, 2018.


Valdesolo, Piercarlo. “Getting Emotions Right in Moral Psychology.” Atlas of Moral Psychology, edited by Kurt Gray and Jesse Graham. The Guilford Press, 2018, pp. 88-98.


Valdesolo, Piercarlo. “How Fathers Can Change What It Means to Be a Man.” Scientific American, June 12, 2018.