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2019 Psychological Science Publications and Grants

*Indicates student co-author

Charlop, Marjorie H., and Caitlyn B. Gumaer. “Use of a Speech Generating Device and Various Prompting Procedures Might Facilitate Vocalizations in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.” Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention, vol. 13, issue 4, 2019, pp. 204-209.

Abstract: Will a speech-generating device intervention package, including time-delay, differential reinforcement and an echoic prompt, increase the vocalization of children with autism spectrum (ASD) who are considered minimally verbal?


Daneshvar, Sabrina D., Marjorie H. Charlop, and Debra Berry Malmberg. “A Treatment Comparison Study of a Photo Activity Schedule and Social Stories for Teaching Social Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.” Developmental Neurorehabilitation, vol. 22, issue 3, 2019, pp. 209-214.

Purpose: To compare the efficacy of two procedures, a photo activity schedule intervention and Social Stories, to teach social skills to four children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Methods: An adapted alternating treatments design with an additional multiple baseline control was used, and two social skills were targeted for each of the four participants, one under each intervention condition. Results: Results indicated that all four participants learned the target social behaviours with the photo activity schedule intervention, but did not learn target social behaviours with Social Stories. Conclusions: Findings support the use of a photo activity intervention for teaching social skills to children with ASD; we discuss the implications of inconsistent findings of effectiveness of Social Stories.


External Grant: Simon-Strauss Foundation Grant, Social Skills Program for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 2019.

Day, David and Zhengguang Liu. “What Is Wrong with Leadership Development and What Might Be Done About It? What’s Wrong with Leadership: Improving Leadership Research and Practice, 1st Edition, edited by Ronald E. Riggio. Routledge, 2019, pp. 226-240.


Liu, Zhengguang, Ronald E. Riggio, David V. Day, Chanjin Zheng, Shenghai Dai, and Yufang Bian. “Leader Development Begins at Home: Overparenting Harms Adolescent Leader Emergence.” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 104, issue 10, 2019, pp. 1226-1242.

Abstract: There is increasing interest in the early roots and influencing factors of leadership potential from a life span development perspective. This conceptual and empirical work extends traditional approaches focusing on adults in organizational settings. From the perspective of early influences on leader development, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of overparenting on adolescent leader emergence, influencing mechanisms, and sex differences. Students (N = 1,255) from 55 classrooms in 13 junior high schools participated, with additional responses from their parents, peers, and teachers. The results indicated that overparenting is negatively related to adolescent leader emergence as indicated by parent ratings, teacher ratings, and peer nominations in addition to leader role occupancy. The negative effects of overparenting on leader emergence (perceived and actual) were serially mediated by self-esteem and leader self-efficacy. In addition, sex difference analysis revealed that male adolescents received more overparenting and showed less leader emergence (perceived and actual) than female adolescents. Female adolescents’ self-esteem was more likely to be negatively related to overparenting, and female adolescents’ leader emergence (perceived and actual) was more strongly related to their leader self-efficacy when compared with male adolescents. Implications for life span leader development theory, for youth and adult leadership development practices, and for parenting practices on future generations are discussed. 

Dich, Nadya and Stacey N. Doan. “Moderate Emotional Reactions to Stressful Life Events are Associated with Lowest Risk of Increased Alcohol Consumption: Evidence from the Whitehall II Study.” European Journal of Public Health, vol. 29, issue 4, 2019, pp. 754-758.

Background: Research investigating the associations between stress-related negative emotions and alcohol consumption often assumes a linear dose-response relationship. Based on the current theories of emotions, we questioned this assumption and hypothesized that both very low and very high levels of negative emotional response (NER) to stressful life events are related to increased alcohol consumption. Methods: We used data from Phases 1 (1985-88) and 2 (1989-90) of the British Whitehall II study. At both phases, participants reported on their alcohol consumption, recent stressful events and the NER to the events. Two thousand and sixteen participants without recent stressful events at baseline were selected. Logistic regression was used to model the association between emotional response at baseline and increased frequency of alcohol consumption between the two phases. Results: The likelihood of increased alcohol consumption increased with the number of recent stressful events. Among participants with at least one event, 17% increased alcohol consumption, compared with 14% of those who reported no events. Participants with average NER were at lowest risk (14%) of increasing alcohol consumption after major life events. Those with highest NER were significantly more likely to increase alcohol consumption (20%) than those with average NER, but the difference between those with highest NER and those with lowest NER (17%) was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Increases in alcohol consumption following stressful events are least likely if people experience moderate levels of NER to events. Negative emotions in moderate doses should not be regarded as a risk factor for unhealthy behaviours, but rather a potentially protective factor.


Doan, Stacey N., Nadya Dich, Thomas E. Fuller-Rowell, and Gary W. Evans. “Externalizing Behaviors Buffer the Effects of Early Life Adversity on Physiologic Dysregulation.” Scientific Reports, vol. 9, 2019, 13623.

Abstract: The present study examined the counterintuitive hypothesis that externalizing behaviors such as aggression, although in many respects detrimental, may be functional and protect against the detrimental health consequences of early life adversity. In particular, in line with evolutionary models of development, we argue that externalizing problems moderate the association between chronic stress exposure and allostatic load, a biological marker of chronic physiological dysregulation. Prospective interactive effects of externalizing behaviors and cumulative risk (a confluence of multiple risk factors) on children’s allostatic load were assessed in 260 children (46% female, baseline age = 9). Exposure to early life adversity was assessed at baseline using a cumulative risk index. Externalizing behaviors were reported by parents at baseline. Allostatic load was measured at baseline and at ages 13 and 17, using endocrine, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Results of linear-mixed effects models indicated that the association between cumulative risk and allostatic load was attenuated for adolescents who scored high on externalizing behaviors. Further examination of sex differences indicated that the findings were more pronounced among males than females.


Doan, Stacey N., Helen Y. Lee, and Qi Wang. “Maternal Mental State Language is Associated with Trajectories of Chinese Immigrant Children’s Emotion Situation Knowledge.” International Journal of Behavioral Development, vol. 43, issue 1, 2019, pp. 43-52.

Abstract: We investigated the role of mothers’ references to mental states and behaviors and children’s emotion situation knowledge (ESK) in a prospective, cross-cultural context. European American mothers (n = 71) and Chinese immigrant mothers (n = 60) and their children participated in the study. Maternal references to mental states and behaviors were assessed at Time 1 when children were three years of age. ESK was assessed when children were 3, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. Multi-group latent growth curve analyses were used to model children’s growth in ESK over time, as well as relations between mental state language and references to behaviors on children’s trajectories. Results indicated that maternal references to mental states were associated with concurrent levels of ESK for European American children, and change over time for the Chinese immigrant children. Maternal references to behaviors were negatively associated with concurrent ESK for both groups.


Doan, Stacey N., Ana K. Marcelo, and Tuppett M. Yates. “Ethnic-Racial Discrimination, Family Ethnic Socialization and Latinx Children’s Emotional Competence.” Culture and Brain, vol. 7, issue 2, 2019, pp. 190-211.

Abstract: Emotion competence is vital for success in a wide range of domains. Although a large body of research has demonstrated that universal socialization processes, such as parenting, influence children’s emotion competence, few studies have identified risk and protective factors that may also contribute to the development of emotion competence, particularly among children of Latin descent. This study evaluated hypothesized negative relations between Latinx children’s perceived experiences of ethnic-racial discrimination (ERD) and later emotion competence as indexed by children’s emotion knowledge and coping skills. Further, we explored both direct and interactive effects of family ethnic-racial socialization (FES) on Latinx children’s emotion competence in the wake of ERD. Latinx children (N = 100, 44% female) reported on their perceived experiences of ERD at age 7 and parents reported on FES at age 8. Emotion competence was assessed at age 8 using a laboratory assessment of the child’s emotion recognition and labeling skills to index emotion knowledge. Parents reported on children’s positive and maladaptive coping. Latinx children’s perceived experiences of ERD were related to lower levels of emotion knowledge and higher levels of maladaptive coping 1 year later. FES was also associated with higher levels of positive coping. Importantly, FES moderated the effect of ERD on children’s maladaptive coping, but not on children’s emotion knowledge or positive coping. The relation between ERD and maladaptive coping was significant at high FES levels, but not at low FES levels. These findings document the incidence and negative impact of young, Latinx children’s experiences of ERD on their emotion competence and highlight the influence of FES on Latinx children’s emotional development in contexts of ERD.


Liu, Cindy H. and Stacey N. Doan. “Innovations in Biological Assessments of Chronic Stress Through Hair and Nail Cortisol: Conceptual, Developmental, and Methodological Issues.” Developmental Psychobiology, vol. 61, issue 3, 2019, pp. 465-476.

Abstract: Much of the existing research on biological mechanisms underlying the stress experience has focused largely on moment‐to‐moment stress, rather than on chronic stress, an arguably more powerful predictor of long‐term outcomes. Recent methodological innovations have paved the way for new lines of research on chronic stress, with promising implications for developmental researchers and for those who study health and adversity. In particular, there are increasing studies that have focused on chronic stress assessments by relying on cortisol derived from hair and nails as a biomarker for chronic stress. In this paper, we provide an overview of their use, describe how hair and nail cortisol ought to be conceptualized differently across the lifespan, how developmental factors may impact its interpretation, and the circumstances under which its use may be more methodologically sensible. The purpose of this review is to provoke further discussion and encourage careful research designs that utilize hair and nail cortisol for understanding the effects of chronic stress exposure from the early developmental period, across adverse contexts, and in association with psychological and physical health outcomes.


Song, Qingfang, Yang Yang, Stacey N. Doan, and Qi Wang. “Savoring or Dampening? Maternal Reactions to Children’s Positive Emotions in Cultural Contexts.” Culture and Brain, vol. 7, issue 2, 2019, pp. 172-189.

Abstract: This study examined in cultural contexts maternal reactions to children’s positive emotions and the relations to children’s socio-emotional outcomes. European American (EA) and Chinese immigrant (CI) mothers reported their reactions to children’s (N = 117, M = 7.14 years) positive emotions. Children were interviewed for emotion knowledge and mothers rated children’s psychological adjustment. CI mothers reported to use emotion dampening reactions more than did EA mothers. Whereas maternal savoring reactions were associated with better adaptive adjustment across cultures, maternal dampening reactions were negatively associated with children’s emotion knowledge at marginal significance for EA but not for CI children. The findings shed critical light on the functional meaning of parental emotion socialization practices for shaping developmental outcomes in specific cultural contexts.


Wang, Qi, Jessie Bee Kim Koh, Diana Santacrose, Qingfang Song, J. Zoe Klemfuss, and Stacey N. Doan. “Child-Centered Memory Conversations Facilitate Children’s Episodic Thinking.” Cognitive Development, vol. 51, 2019, pp. 58-66.

Abstract: Episodic thinking is involved in the representation of specific personal events occurring at a particular time and place. Although a fundamental human cognitive faculty directly associated with neurocognitive functioning, episodic thinking and its development is subject to sociocultural experiences. This study integrated experimental and longitudinal approaches to test the effect of training mothers to have child-centered memory conversations – the type of conversations frequently observed in Western families – on children’s episodic thinking. Six-year-old Chinese and European American children (N = 103) were pretested and randomly assigned to a maternal training or control condition. In the following 6 months, mothers were encouraged to share memories with their children, and those in the training condition were further asked to focus the conversation on their children’s thoughts, desires, and feelings. One year after the completion of training, children of training group mothers represented past and future events in greater episodic detail than those of control group mothers. These findings provide critical experimental evidence for the development of episodic thinking as a sociocultural process.


External Grant: NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Development. “Children's Academic Competence in Contexts of Risk: Longitudinal Relations with Sleep and Physical health in Adolescence.”  R03 HD097623, 2019, $167,169.

Abstract: In the U.S., nearly 1 in 5 children grows up in poverty. Although poverty and its associated risks predict a broad range of negative outcomes, many children evidence resilience - apparent competence despite adversity. This body of work has led to the development and implementation of intervention programs to promote resilience among adversity-exposed youth. Unfortunately, recent evidence suggests that children's efforts to mobilize competent adaptation in contexts of adversity may exact later physical health costs, as indicated by biological markers of chronic physiological stress and cellular aging. However, extant studies of putative "costs of coping" have focused primarily on African American samples, with little consideration of moderating or mediating mechanisms. The proposed study will address these gaps by evaluating relations among children's academic competence and physical health problems as function of poverty-related risk exposure in a large and diverse community sample that has been followed from the preschool period into adolescence. Further, we will evaluate supportive parenting and ethnic/racial identity as potential protective factors that may mitigate these health costs, and adolescents' sleep dysregulation as a putative mediator of these negative effects. This research will capitalize on the added value of seven existing waves of multilevel, multimethod, multi-informant assessments of competence, adversity, and adaptation in a sample of 250 diverse child-caregiver dyads (50% female; 46% Hispanic/Latino; 37.6% poverty) at ages 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12 with outstanding retention (95.6% have returned for follow-ups). Extending to include a new assessment of sleep and health at age 14, this study will provide an unprecedented opportunity to 1) evaluate relations among academic competence, poverty-related risk exposure, and adolescent physical health in diverse ethnic/racial groups, particularly Latinx youth, 2) elucidate protective factors that reduce the health costs of academic resilience, and 3) test sleep dysregulation as a mediating mechanism in the pathway from resilience to health problems. Spanning a decade of development from ages 4-14, this study will address NICHD's high priority areas to understand contextual factors that impact adaptive behavior, as well as the psychosocial adjustment of individuals in high-risk contexts. Moreover, we focus on adolescence as a period of major developmental reorganization that is characterized by increased vulnerability to dysregulated sleep and health problems, as well as untapped opportunity for intervention and amelioration. Expected findings will evaluate the scope and generalizability of resilience costs, while illuminating pathways by which interventions may target modifiable protective and mediating mechanisms to reduce these costs and promote positive development for all youth.

Delice, Fabrice, Moira Rousseau, and Jennifer Feitosa. “Advancing Teams Research: What, When, and How to Measure Team Dynamics Over Time.” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 10, 2019, article 1324.

Abstract: Teams are complex and dynamic entities that face constant changes to their team structures and must simultaneously work to meet and adapt to the varying situational demands of their environment (Kozlowski and Ilgen, 2006). Agencies, industries, and government institutions are currently placing greater attention to the influence on team dynamics and teamwork as they are important to key organizational outcomes. Due to increased emphasis being placed upon the understanding the maturation of team dynamics, the incorporation of efficient methodological tools to understand how teams are being measured over time becomes critical. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present a review of relevant academic articles detailing the science behind methodological tools and general approaches to study team dynamics over time. We provide an overview of the methodological tools used to understand team dynamics with accordance to specific temporal elements. Drawing from Kozlowski et al. (1999) process model of team development, we highlight relevant emergent team constructs within each stage. As well, for each stage, we discuss the what and how to measure team dynamics. Our analyses bring to light relevant, novel and complex approaches being used by researchers to examine specific constructs within different team developmental phases (e.g., agent-based simulations, computational modeling) and the importance of transitioning from a single source methodology approach. Implications and future research are also discussed.

Arciniega, Hector, Alexandrea Kilgore-Gomez, Alison Harris, Dwight J. Peterson, Jaclyn McBride, Emily Fox, and Marian E. Berryhill. “Visual Working Memory Deficits in Undergraduates with a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, vol. 81, issue 8, 2019, pp. 2597-2603.

Abstract: We investigated whether a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, has any effect on visual working memory (WM) performance. In most cases, cognitive performance is thought to return to premorbid levels soon after injury, without further medical intervention. We tested this assumption in undergraduates, among whom a history of mTBI is prevalent. Notably, participants with a history of mTBI performed worse than their colleagues with no such history. Experiment 1 was based on a change detection paradigm in which we manipulated visual WM set size from one to three items, which revealed a significant deficit at set size 3. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether feedback could rescue WM performance in the mTBI group, and found that it failed. In Experiment 3 we manipulated WM maintenance duration (set size 3, 500–1,500 ms) to investigate a maintenance-related deficit. Across all durations, the mTBI group was impaired. In Experiment 4 we tested whether retrieval demands contributed to WM deficits and showed a consistent deficit across recognition and recall probes. In short, even years after an mTBI, undergraduates perform differently on visual WM tasks than their peers with no such history. Given the prevalence of mTBI, these data may benefit other researchers who see high variability in their data. Clearly, further studies will be needed to determine the breadth of the cognitive deficits in those with a history of mTBI and to identify relevant factors that contribute to positive cognitive outcomes.


External Grant: National Science Foundation (Award# 1923178). "Collaborative Research: Dissociating Perceptual and Motor Correlates of EEG Mu-Alpha and Beta Oscillations in Emotional Action Simulation." $402,516. PI: Harris, Alison, Co-PI: Reed, Catherine L. January 1, 2019-August 31, 2022.

Abstract: From jumping jacks to jumping for joy, the "body language" of human movement provides important information about the intentions and emotions of others. Growing evidence suggests that we understand others' mental states by internally recreating, or simulating, their external actions. Yet questions remain about how different brain systems contribute to action simulation, and whether this process is linked to individual differences in social perception abilities. This research uses electroencephalography (EEG) to examine brain activity associated with action simulation during observation of emotional body movements, both in typically developing individuals and in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a condition associated with social perception impairments. By testing the link between EEG measures of action simulation and emotion perception capabilities across a broad sample of individual socio-emotional functioning, these data will provide a rigorous theoretical framework for understanding the neural basis of emotional action simulation. More broadly, the research may provide new insights into the neural origins of social impairments observed in ASD, potentially leading to improved diagnoses and therapies. Finally, these activities will promote undergraduate training in the STEM disciplines by providing authentic research opportunities for students including women and underrepresented minorities. The proposed research will examine the relation between perceptual and motor circuits in emotion simulation. In a previous EEG study, the investigators found distinct neural markers associated with the observation of emotional and emotionally-neutral actions. Emotional actions elicited a reduction of cortical "mu" alpha rhythms (9-12 Hz) linked to perceptual aspects of action simulation, but neutral actions produced enhanced beta-band oscillations (14-20 Hz) associated with motor planning and response inhibition. Both effects were attenuated in a nonclinical sample of individuals reporting greater autistic tendencies, suggesting these neural markers are sensitive to individual differences in social-emotional traits. The proposed research will investigate the contribution of motor circuits to mu-alpha suppression for emotional actions by comparing action execution with observed emotional action and varying the familiarity and ease of simulating observed emotional actions. Examination of individuals with ASD will distinguish how mu and beta band activity relate to individual differences in emotional processing, allowing assessment of whether neurodevelopmental disruptions of sensorimotor systems play a role in emotion simulation deficits. Collectively, these studies will provide important insights into the relations between EEG measures, action simulation processes, and emotion perception.

Hwang, Wei-Chin, and Courtney P. Chan*. “Compassionate Meditation to Heal from Race-Related Stress: A Pilot Study with Asian Americans.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 89, no. 4, 2019, pp. 482-492.

Abstract: Racism and race-related stress can negatively impact the mental health status of ethnic minorities. In recent years, college campuses have held demonstrations to promote awareness regarding racism and to call for resources to help improve campus climate and to address the needs of students of color. This study answers this call by developing and evaluating the benefits of a peer-led compassionate meditation program to help students of color heal from race-related stress. To date, no studies have examined whether compassionate meditation (a specific type of meditation) can be used as a therapeutic tool to address racial stress. This article discusses the formative process for developing and pilot-testing the effects of this culturally responsive 8-session compassionate meditation program with Asian American college students. Despite a small sample size, results were promising. and participants evidenced decreases in general distress, as well as depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. Moreover, by the end of the program, fewer students were clinically depressed. The results of this study provide some initial evidence that brief, culturally responsive compassionate meditation interventions may be a promising and cost-effective method for addressing the impact of racism and race-related stress.

Bukach, Cindy M., Kendall Stewart, Jane W. Couperus, and Catherine L. Reed. “Using Collaborative Models to Overcome Obstacles to Undergraduate Publication in Cognitive Neuroscience.” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 10, 2019, article 549.

Abstract: We propose that many of the roadblocks to publishing with undergraduates in disciplines such as cognitive neuroscience can be addressed by a collaborative, shared-resource model that includes both cross-institutional faculty collaboration as well as student-faculty collaboration. Opportunities for engaging students in publishable research increase when faculty from diverse institutions share their time, expertise, and resources. Further, student-faculty collaboration provides opportunities for students to develop their skills and knowledge and ensures that training materials are effective and engaging. The benefits of such collaborative models are numerous, but those most relevant to student publication include an increase in student abilities to apply and generalize learning to new problems and solutions, ask good questions, think critically, synthesize information and ideas, and collaborate. As a working example, we describe how our current initiative, Preparing Undergraduates for Research in STEM-related fields Using Electrophysiology (PURSUE), enhances publication opportunities for not only for those directly involved, but also for others who will benefit from the materials and community established by the project.


Hagen, Emilia*, Jane W. Couperus, Cindy M. Bukach, and Catherine L. Reed. “Visualizing Neuroscience: Applying Best Practices When Creating Animations of Difficulty Concepts.” Teaching Tips: A Compendium of Conference Presentations on Teaching 2017-18, edited by Suzanne Baker. Society for the Teaching of Psychology, 2019, pp. 166-167.

Abstract: Animations of scientific concepts can improve comprehension by explicating and visualizing the steps of complex processes. We demonstrate how best practices (backwards design, develop-test-revise cycles) and undergraduate inputs lead to the creation of effective, undergraduate-level animations designed to explain neural signal generation in the brain for electroencephalography. As part of the NSF-sponsored Preparing Undergraduate for Research in STEM-related fields Using Electrophysiology (PURSUE) project, faculty and undergraduates identified for animation a set of difficult but essential concepts in cognitive electrophysiology -- how neural signals are generated and measured by scalp electrodes. Using a develop-test-revise cycle, we developed three animations. We tested their educational effectiveness and engagement by comparing them to equivalent text versions. All undergraduates found the animations more engaging. Although neuroscience majors learned equally well from text and animations, non-neuroscience majors learned the essential concepts better from animations. Animations may be important tools for introducing non-majors to neuroscience.


Jackson, Wyatt, Jane Song, Kendall Stewart, Jane W. Couperus, Catherine L. Reed, and Cindy M. Bukach. “Interactive Neuroscience: Creating Interactive Web-Based Simulations to Demonstrate Difficult Concepts through Student-Faculty Collaboration.” Teaching Tips: A Compendium of Conference Presentations on Teaching 2017-18, edited by Suzanne Baker. Society for the Teaching of Psychology, 2019, pp. 168-169.

Abstract: Interactive learning enhances student outcomes. As part of the NSF-sponsored Preparing Undergraduate for Research in STEM-related fields Using Electrophysiology (PURSUE) project, we created interactive simulations demonstrating how electrophysiology signals are generated in the brain and measured, and show how student and faculty feedback enhanced simulation development. This interactive web-based simulation provides a method to reinforce and assess student understanding inside and outside of the classroom. Students can adjust the dynamics of the animation to gradually increase the complexity of information presented, and generate/test hypotheses. The interactive simulations can be incorporated into class lectures and activities or assigned outside of class. Simulations resulted in better learning relative to baseline. Student surveys indicated that the simulations captured interest and helped students assess their own learning and points of confusion. Student researchers reported that the process deepened their theoretical understanding of how electrical potentials were elicited and developed important programming skills.


Vyas, Daivik B.*, John P. Garza, and Catherine L. Reed. “Hand Function, Not Proximity, Biases Visuotactile Integration Later in Object Processing: An ERP Study.” Consciousness and Cognition, vol. 69, 2019, pp. 26-35.

Abstract: Behavioral studies document a functional hand proximity effect: objects near the palm, but not the back of the hand, affect visual processing. Although visuotactile bimodal neurons integrate visual and haptic inputs, their receptive fields in monkey cortex encompass the whole hand, not just the palm. Using ERPs, we investigated whether hand function influenced the topology of integrated space around the hand. In a visual detection paradigm, target and non-target stimuli appeared equidistantly in front or in back of the hand. Equivalent N1 amplitudes were found for both conditions. P3 target versus non-target amplitude differences were greater for palm conditions. Hand proximity biased processing of visual targets equidistant from the hand early in processing. However, hand function biases emerged later when targets were selected for potential action. Thus, early hand proximity effects on object processing depend on sensory-reliant neural responses, whereas later multisensory integration depend more on the hand’s functional expertise.


External Grant: National Science Foundation, Department of Undergraduate Education (DUE), Improving Undergraduate Stem Education (IUSE). "Collaborative Proposal: Level II Preparing Undergraduates for Research in STEM-related fields Using Electrophysiology (PURSUE)." Primary Investigator, Catherine Reed. Funded November 2019 for 2020-2025, CMC: $725,036, Whole Grant Total: $1,997,684.

Abstract: Effecting pedagogical change requires creation, revision and dissemination of innovative evidence-based teaching materials that can be flexibly implemented, as well as adequate instructor training and support during implementation. The goal of Level II (LII) PURSUE (Preparing Undergraduates for Research in STEM-related fields Using Electrophysiology) is to provide usable and accessible undergraduate-level training materials for cognitive electrophysiology, created using best course design practices. The aim is to increase the quality and number of training opportunities for undergraduates, thereby increasing research outcomes that involve undergraduate co-authors. Our specific objectives are to 1) to refine, assess, and revise a set of inclusive cognitive electrophysiology training materials (developed in our Level I grant) using a cycle of innovation and evidence-based practices; 2) to facilitate and support implementation and broaden the cognitive electrophysiology collaborative teaching/research community through workshops for faculty who wish to incorporate the materials into existing courses or create new courses; and 3) to expand dissemination and increase accessibility of the materials through development of a comprehensive professional website and open-source resource development. Consistent with the goals of the IUSE program, our project will improve STEM learning and learning environments by 1) fostering widespread use of evidence-based resources and pedagogies in undergraduate STEM education; 2) broadening participation and institutional capacity for STEM learning by facilitating the revision of existing courses and creation of new courses implementing evidence-based and inclusive strategies; and 3) building the professional STEM workforce for tomorrow by providing students with the training needed to engage in authentic research experiences leading to publication. Our products provide much-needed training materials for cognitive neuroscience and skills relevant for STEM fields, because EEG/ERP experimental design and analysis transfers directly to other neuroimaging methods (e.g., fMRI). Because few courses exist that teach undergraduates the skills needed to prepare them for authentic research in cognitive neuroscience, our proposal fills the gap by creating EEG/ERP training materials targeted for undergraduates. Our course materials are designed to be modular and easily adaptable to different types of courses. They are vetted for information accuracy. Our cycle of innovation design allows us to assess their ease of use, student learning and engagement; feedback is incorporated into each subsequent revision. This project guides faculty through course and module implementation to better train students for lab research and co-authored publication. In this LII grant we expand our training to include students at Research Intensive (RI), primarily undergraduate (PUI) and other institutions. By tailoring workshops for multiple audiences (those who wish to modify existing courses, implement a new course, or add a component to an existing course) LII can impact curriculum across a nation-wide set of institutions. Our professional website will host all of our materials (introductory modules, course modules, animations, simulations, instructional videos, tutorial links, and faculty teaching/research community information). Finally, the workshops and the website provide a forum for community development and fosters cross-lab collaboration and mentorship. This proposal provides training and funding to implement 35 new and modified Full-Semester courses in cognitive electrophysiology in institutions across the country, and increases introductions to EEG/ERP methodology in many more courses. Ultimately it should change the training of 1000's of undergraduate and graduate students in classes and labs. The online accessibility of our materials allows faculty from diverse colleges and universities worldwide, from PUIs to RIs, particularly those with limited resources, to increase opportunities for underrepresented populations. Our lab training and database materials will facilitate training on research design and analysis without the need to purchase or maintain EEG/ERP equipment. This will enable faculty to combine their teaching and research in ways that increase opportunities for faculty-student co-authored publication in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, our focus on preparing undergraduates for authentic research experiences, leading to conference presentations and publications, will better train students for graduate school and the STEM workforce. Finally, our collaborative faculty learning community approach will increase research and training opportunities for faculty teaching and student training opportunities in STEM.


External Grant: National Science Foundation (Award# 1923178). "Collaborative Research: Dissociating Perceptual and Motor Correlates of EEG Mu-Alpha and Beta Oscillations in Emotional Action Simulation." $402,516. PI: Harris, Alison, Co-PI: Reed, Catherine L. January 1, 2019-August 31, 2022.

Abstract: From jumping jacks to jumping for joy, the "body language" of human movement provides important information about the intentions and emotions of others. Growing evidence suggests that we understand others' mental states by internally recreating, or simulating, their external actions. Yet questions remain about how different brain systems contribute to action simulation, and whether this process is linked to individual differences in social perception abilities. This research uses electroencephalography (EEG) to examine brain activity associated with action simulation during observation of emotional body movements, both in typically developing individuals and in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a condition associated with social perception impairments. By testing the link between EEG measures of action simulation and emotion perception capabilities across a broad sample of individual socio-emotional functioning, these data will provide a rigorous theoretical framework for understanding the neural basis of emotional action simulation. More broadly, the research may provide new insights into the neural origins of social impairments observed in ASD, potentially leading to improved diagnoses and therapies. Finally, these activities will promote undergraduate training in the STEM disciplines by providing authentic research opportunities for students including women and underrepresented minorities. The proposed research will examine the relation between perceptual and motor circuits in emotion simulation. In a previous EEG study, the investigators found distinct neural markers associated with the observation of emotional and emotionally-neutral actions. Emotional actions elicited a reduction of cortical "mu" alpha rhythms (9-12 Hz) linked to perceptual aspects of action simulation, but neutral actions produced enhanced beta-band oscillations (14-20 Hz) associated with motor planning and response inhibition. Both effects were attenuated in a nonclinical sample of individuals reporting greater autistic tendencies, suggesting these neural markers are sensitive to individual differences in social-emotional traits. The proposed research will investigate the contribution of motor circuits to mu-alpha suppression for emotional actions by comparing action execution with observed emotional action and varying the familiarity and ease of simulating observed emotional actions. Examination of individuals with ASD will distinguish how mu and beta band activity relate to individual differences in emotional processing, allowing assessment of whether neurodevelopmental disruptions of sensorimotor systems play a role in emotion simulation deficits. Collectively, these studies will provide important insights into the relations between EEG measures, action simulation processes, and emotion perception.

Liu, Zhengguang, Ronald E. Riggio, David V. Day, Chanjin Zheng, Shenghai Dai, and Yufang Bian. “Leader Development Begins at Home: Overparenting Harms Adolescent Leader Emergence.” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 104, issue 10, 2019, pp. 1226-1242.

Abstract: There is increasing interest in the early roots and influencing factors of leadership potential from a life span development perspective. This conceptual and empirical work extends traditional approaches focusing on adults in organizational settings. From the perspective of early influences on leader development, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of overparenting on adolescent leader emergence, influencing mechanisms, and sex differences. Students (N = 1,255) from 55 classrooms in 13 junior high schools participated, with additional responses from their parents, peers, and teachers. The results indicated that overparenting is negatively related to adolescent leader emergence as indicated by parent ratings, teacher ratings, and peer nominations in addition to leader role occupancy. The negative effects of overparenting on leader emergence (perceived and actual) were serially mediated by self-esteem and leader self-efficacy. In addition, sex difference analysis revealed that male adolescents received more overparenting and showed less leader emergence (perceived and actual) than female adolescents. Female adolescents’ self-esteem was more likely to be negatively related to overparenting, and female adolescents’ leader emergence (perceived and actual) was more strongly related to their leader self-efficacy when compared with male adolescents. Implications for life span leader development theory, for youth and adult leadership development practices, and for parenting practices on future generations are discussed. 


Riggio, Ronald E. “Introduction: What’s Wrong with Leadership Research and Practice?” What’s Wrong with Leadership: Improving Leadership Research and Practice, edited by Ronald E. Riggio. Routledge, 2019, pp. 1-6.

Abstract: This chapter introduces the motivation behind this edited volume that critiques leadership research and practice, and suggests ways to improve both. Ranging from criticism of how data is collected and analyzed, to limitations of leadership theory, to shortcomings in the practice and development of leadership, a chapter by chapter breakdown is provided.


Riggio, Ronald E., editor. What’s Wrong with Leadership: Improving Leadership Research and Practice, 1st Edition. Routledge, 2019.

Abstract: Leadership practitioners and those who seek to develop leadership are concerned with whether they are using evidence-based best practices to develop leadership capacity in themselves and others. Are we indeed using best practices in the study, practice, and development of leadership? This book seeks to draw attention to the limitations of extant work on leadership, and to provide suggestions for a way forward. Presenting chapters on topics ranging from research methodology, gender and cross-cultural issues in leadership studies, and the role of the humanities in our understanding of leadership, the book represents a rigorous multidisciplinary collaboration.

Tan, Sherylle J., and Lisa DeFrank-Cole, editors. Women’s Leadership Journeys: Stories Research, and Novel Perspectives. Routledge, 2019.

Abstract: This volume brings together research from leading scholars with stories from women leaders in diverse sectors to provide insights from their leadership journeys. The book begins with personal stories of women’s leadership journeys by chief executive officers, a former U.S. ambassador, a college president, and others. The stories enable readers to make sense of their own leadership journeys by learning about the varied paths to leadership and taking note of key elements such as role transitions, defining moments, identity development, and growth mindsets. Next, scholars discuss novel research that can guide women in navigating their journeys to leadership, including on followership, competition, representation of women in politics, and the role of biology in leadership. This must-have volume offers cutting-edge perspectives and a guide for women to navigate their own journeys to impactful leadership.

Abel, Magdalena, Sharda Umanath, Beth Fairfield, Masanobu Takahashi, Henry L. Roediger III, and James V. Wertsch. “Collective Memories Across 11 Nations for World War II: Similarities and Differences Regarding the Most Important Events.” Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, vol. 8, issue 2, 2019, pp. 178-188.

Abstract: World War II affected almost all nations of the world. The events of the war and their consequences are still being debated today, decades later. In two studies, we examined how people from different countries remembered the war. Over 100 people from each of 11 countries (Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, UK, and USA) provided their opinions of the 10 most important events of WWII. Participants also completed an event recognition test to assess their general knowledge of the war. The results demonstrate great consensus for important events, but also some striking differences wherein people frequently nominated events that were important to only their country. Particularly, Russians’ collective memory for the war is quite different from that of its former allies and enemies. Study 2 replicated the findings in former Axis countries when the survey was provided in their native languages rather than in English.


Coane, Jennifer H. and Sharda Umanath. “I Don’t Remember vs. I Don’t Know: Phenomenological States Associated with Retrieval Failures.” Journal of Memory and Language, vol. 107, 2019, pp. 152-168.

Abstract: When retrieval fails, what is the phenomenology of that experience? We explored different states of experience associated with retrieval failures that vary in intensity. Specifically, we examined the difference between not knowing and not remembering and the ways in which these states are described. Naïve and expert participants defined “I don’t know” (DK) and “I don’t remember” (DR). DR was associated with lack of accessibility and forgetting, whereas DK was associated with never having learned the information. To examine whether these states map onto distinct behavioral outcomes, in two experiments, younger and older adult participants were asked general knowledge questions with the option of responding DK or DR after a retrieval failure. On a final multiple-choice test (Exp. 2) or cued recall test following correct answer feedback (Exp. 3), when an initial DK response was given, performance was generally lower than following initial DR responses, suggesting that not remembering reflects a failure in accessibility, whereas not knowing reflects the experience of not having information in the knowledge base. The effect was large and robust across ages and tests.


Roediger, Henry L, III, Magdalena Abel, Sharda Umanath, Ruth A. Shaffer, Beth Fairfield, Masanobu Takahashi, and James V. Wertsch. “Competing National Memories of World War II.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 116, no. 34, 2019, pp. 16678-16686.

Abstract: We assessed the knowledge of 1,338 people from 11 countries (8 former Allied and 3 former Axis) about World War II. When asked what percentage their country contributed to the war effort, across Allied countries, estimates totaled 309%, and Axis nations' estimates came to 140%. People in 4 nations claimed more than 50% responsibility for their country (Germany, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States). The overclaiming of responsibility reflected in these percentages was moderated when subjects were asked to consider the contributions of other countries; however, Russians continued to claim great responsibility, the only country that remained well over 50% in its claim of responsibility for the Allied victory. If deaths in the war are considered a proxy of a nation's contributions, the Soviet Union did carry much of the burden. This study points to sharp differences in national memory even across nations who fought on the same side in the war. Differing national perspectives shape diverse memories of the same complex event.


Rubin, David C., Samantha A. Deffler, and Sharda Umanath. “Scenes Enable a Sense of Reliving: Implications for Autobiographical Memory.” Cognition, vol. 183, 2019, pp. 44-56.

Abstract: Autobiographical memory has been defined by the phenomenological properties of reliving, vividness, and belief that an event occurred. Neuropsychological damage that results in the inability to recall the layout of a scene also results in amnesia suggesting a possible milder effect in people without such neurological damage. Based on this and other observations, we hypothesized that the degree to which the layout of a scene is recalled will correlate positively with ratings of reliving, vividness, and belief, and will explain more variance in multiple regressions than recalling the scene’s contents. We also hypothesized that a lack of layout underlies nonspecific autobiographical memories which are common in aging, future events, and clinical disorders, whereas currently such memories are most commonly measured by reports of extended duration. We tested these theory-driven novel hypotheses in three studies to replicate our results. In each study, approximately 200 participants rated the layout, content, and other properties of personal events. Correlational analyses in each study and a structural equation model for the combined studies provide strong support for the role of mental scene construction in an integrative neurocognitive approach to clarify cognitive theory and clinical phenomena.


Umanath, Sharda, François Ries*, and Mark J. Huff. “Reducing Suggestibility to Additive Versus Contradictory Misinformation in Younger and Older Adults Via Divided Attention and/or Explicit Error Detection.” Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 33, issue 5, 2019, pp. 793-805.

Abstract: Younger and older adults are more suggestible to additive (not originally included) versus contradictory (a change to the original) misleading details. Only suggestibility to contradictory misinformation can be reduced with explicit instructions to detect errors during exposure to misinformation. The present work examines how to reduce suggestibility to additive misinformation and whether attentional resources at exposure similarly influence additive and contradictory misinformation. During the misleading question phase, attention and error detection were manipulated. Participants answered the questions under full or divided attention, and some were instructed to mark detected errors. On the final test, additive misinformation was endorsed more than contradictory misinformation despite equivalent error detection. However, dividing attention reduced suggestibility for additive misinformation, whereas successful error detection showed evidence of reducing contradictory misinformation, providing further evidence for the dissociation between these types of misinformation. Additionally, dividing younger adults' attention did not consistently result in a pattern paralleling older adults.

Conger, Jay, and Gillian Pillans. Digital Disruptions: Exploring the Implications for Leaders and Leadership Development. Corporate Research Forum, 2019.

Abstract: We live in an era of digital disruption, characterized by the rise of digital technology, the emergence of new competitors, reshaping of traditional industry rules and boundaries, an accelerating pace of change and increasing complexity. This executive summary demonstrates the key messages and findings from the full report on digital disruption. The report explores the implications of the Digital Age specifically for leadership and leadership development. We examine how the role and expectations of leaders are changing in the Digital Age and review the implications of these changes for leadership development practices.