Kim, Minju. “From Connective Construction to Final Particle: The Emergence of the Korean Disapproval Marker Hakonun.” Linguistics, vol. 58, issue 6, 2020, pp. 1581-1607.
Abstract: Using conversational data, frequency counts, and prosodic evidence drawn from corpora of 70 television drama series and 142 audiorecorded natural conversations, I demonstrate that the Korean connective
construction hakonun 'after having done,' which comprises ha 'do', ko 'and' and the topic marker nun and indicates a temporal sequence, has developed into a final particle that encodes a speaker's stance of criticism and complaint. I show
that the source, hakonun, has routinely been used in expressing concessive relations between two sequential events that go against the speaker's expectation ('counter-expectation'), and thus, is frequently used to challenge a hearer (e.g.,
'after having done many evil deeds, how can you ask for my help?'). Through this use, the speaker's negative affect and stance of disapproval have become semanticized with hakonun. Drawing on the theoretical frameworks of
(inter)subjectification and insubordination, I propose that hakonun and Japanese shi 'and' constitute another case of crosslinguistically similar development of connectives becoming final particles. McGloin and Konishi (2010) argue that
through its frequent use in the context of counter-expectation, shi 'and' has recently developed into a final particle expressing a speaker's negative stance such as criticism and complaint.
Kim, Minju. “Korean General Extenders Tunci Ha and Kena Ha 'Or Something': Approximation, Hedging, and Pejorative Stance in Cross-linguistic Comparison."
Pragmatics, vol. 30, issue 4, 2020, pp. 560-588.
Abstract: Using natural conversation corpora, I demonstrate that the Korean x-tunci ha 'x-or do' and x-kena ha 'x-or do', which originally list options (e.g., 'x or y do') have emerged as independent constructions that can
indicate approximation, epistemic uncertainty, tentativeness, and even polite hedging. I argue that these Korean "general extenders" (Overstreet 1999) followed a similar (inter)subjectification process to English x-or something and Japanese
x-tari suru 'x-or do.' I also illustrate how these two Korean general extenders specialize in different hedging strategies. Ironically, Korean tunci ha and Japanese tari suru can also convey a speaker's negative affective stance. I
demonstrate that tunci ha was frequently used in making non-imposing suggestions (hedging) and obtained its negative affect in the context of suggesting an obvious but untried solution (i.e., the frustration of the suggesting speaker).
This result differs from Suzuki (2008)'s argument of the Japanese case which attributes this development to a speaker's non-committal attitude.